production is increasing the demand for aquaculture feeds. Fish meal is the main
and most critical ingredient in aqua feed production. The increasing cost of fish meal has encouraged feed manufacturers search for cheaper alternative
protein sources such as plant proteins. Though the palatability of many plant
materials has demerits, anti-nutritional factors are the most serious concern
in replacing the fish meal completely in feed formulations.
factors have an adverse impact on the digestion of feed and its efficiency.
There are many kinds of anti-nutritional factors. Three that are associated
with the most widely used plant materials are trypsin inhibitor proteins,
glucosinolates and phytate. Heat inactivation and water soaking are the two
common detoxification methods used to overcome most of the anti-nutritional
Enzymes provide additional powerful tools that can inactivate anti-nutritional
factors and enhance the nutritional value of plant-based protein in feeds. They
provide a natural way to transform complex feed components into absorbable
nutrients. Endogenous enzymes found in the fishes digestive system help to
break down large organic molecules like starch, cellulose and protein into
simpler substances. The addition of enzymes in feed can improve nutrient
utilization reducing feed cost and the excretion of nutrients into the
Phytic acid is one of the most powerful anti-nutritional factors in plant
ingredients. The anti-nutritional activity of phytic acid can be eliminated by
the addition of relevant enzymes, for example phytase. The phytic acid or
phytate found in cereals, legume grains and oil seeds is bound with phosphorus
and also with calcium and magnesium, trace elements like iron and zinc, protein
and amino acids. Most fishes do not possess their own enzymes to break down the
phytate and release the nutrients so they pass through the fish undigested.
This is why higher proportions of valuable nutrients from vegetable sources are
not utilized by the animals and are wasted as excreta. The feed enzyme phytase
not only releases phosphorus from the phytate but also releases minerals and
amino acids that are also bound, paving the way for maximum utilization of
Advantages of phytase
1. Since the phosphorus bound in phytate becomes available as nutrient due to
the addition of phytase, the inclusion of inorganic phosphorus such as fishmeal
can be drastically reduced.
2. The environmental performance of aquaculture operations is under scrutiny
due to the discharge of nutrients into the surrounding ecosystems. Excessive
phosphorus in particular is an important factor in the eutrophication of
waterways. Phosporus bound in phytate may be unavailable to the fish but it
will still ultimately be released into the environment as microbial action
breaks down the fishes waste. The addition of phytase reduces the release of
nutrients into the environment by making the bound phosphorus available to the
fish for growth – so it is incorporated into the fishes body instead.
3. Phytase added to the diets improves protein and amino acid digestion in
4. Phytase can improve the metabolisable energy of feeds by breaking down the
5. Cheaper plant based protein sources can be substituted for fishmeal lowering
Non – starch polysaccharides (NSP
Another important anti-nutritional factor that can be addressed with feed
enzymes is non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), present in the plant materials and
found to reduce the performance of animals. Their anti-nutritive effects are
mainly due to the increased viscosity of the digest in the intestine and the
enclosure of nutrients making them unavailable to digestion. Since the animals
lack the intestinal enzymes for the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides,
the supplementation of degrading enzymes in the diet will break down these
anti-nutritive factors and result in better feed utilization. Such an approach
has been successfully used in poultry diets.
Experimental results using feed enzymes
A number of studies have reported successful use of enzymes to combat
anti-nutritional factors in plant proteins for fish feeds. Phytase added diets
have been shown to have a higher feed intake, growth and better food conversion
efficiency than control diets in Channel catfish, as well as reduced phosphorus
load in their faecal matter1. Trout fed with phytase-incorporated soybean based
diets have been reported to show a 22% improvement over control fish as
phosphorus availability increased from 46% to over 70%2. Microbial phytase
added diets containing a higher proportion of plant protein have been shown to
improve phosphorus and protein digestibility in Atlantic salmon3.
A feeding trial conducted with tilapia Oreochromisniloticus fingerlings
in Brazil showed the significance of phytase in plant protein based diets. The
feed was supplemented with commercial phytase enzyme “Natuphas??? at 0, 500,
1500 and 3000 units per kilogram of feed. Fishes fed with 500 units of Natuphas
showed higher weight gain and a better food conversion ratio of 1.80.
Supplementation of protease-based additive equaled the performance of low
protein milk fish diet (24% protein) up to the level of higher protein diets
The addition of commercial enzyme Phytasein soybean
based diets free of fish meal showed equal performance of diets containing 10
or 12% fish meal in carp and tilapia4,5,6.
Aquaculture is fast growing Industry. Successful and sustainable aquaculture
depends on economically viable and environmental friendly feeds. Feed is the
major operational cost involving 50 to 60% of the total cost in intensive
farming. The major feed ingredient, fishmeal, is expensive and there is
increasing competition with other livestock industries for the available
supply. Hence, research work has been focussed to find alternatives to
fishmeal. One alternative is to substitute fishmeal with plant proteins
supplemented with feed enzymes. Phytase enzyme is able to release the phosphorus
bound in phytate and this permits feed manufacturers to reduce the fishmeal and
lower the cost of feed production. Improved phosphorus utilization can also
help reduce the discharge of nutrients into the environment. Enzymes can
therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly aquafeeds.
Currently, the use of enzymes is able to reduce fishmeal inclusion by around 5%
in most aquafeeds with potential for more as techniques are refined. This may
help to reduce the demand for fishmeal from the aquaculture sector in coming
helps reduce feed costs without compromising performance.
components of any livestock diet, but is essential for growth. The challenge, therefore,
is to use protein as efficiently as possible so as to reduce feed costs without
compromising animal health.
down protein molecules into the amino acids and peptides needed by animals.
- Increase protein digestibility
- Improve protein utilization by the animal
- Allow lower quality protein sources to be included in
- Protect the environment by reducing the nitrogen
excretion from animal husbandry
in animal diets, Proteases significantly increases the digestibility of
proteases in feed, and considerably increases amino acid and peptide supply so
as to enhance animal performance. It improves the digestibility of a wide range
of protein sources and cereals, allowing savings in diet costs.
- SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
- OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
- MISSION STATEMENT
- SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
- PROJECT STATUS & START UP
- WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
- SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
- SECTION II – STUDY AREA
- STUDY AREA
- COMPANY OVERVIEW
- MANAGEMENT TEAM
- DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
- MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
- SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
- DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
- YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
- MARKET OVERVIEW
- MARKET SEGMENTATION
- RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
- KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
- LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
- MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
- SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
- SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
- TARGET CUSTOMERS
- CUSTOMER NEEDS
- MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
- BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
- MARKET SHARE
- SALES FORECASTING
- SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
- DIRECT COMPETITORS
- COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
- SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
- PRODUCTS & SERVICES
- FINISHED PRODUCTS
- PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
- PRODUCTION CAPACITY
- PROMOTIONS PLAN
- DISTRIBUTION PLAN
- SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
- GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
- TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
- PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
- SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
- REVENUE MODEL
- FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
- FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCE CHARGES
- FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
- FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
- CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCIAL MODELS
- SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
- BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
- OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
- TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
- FINANCING PLAN
- INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
- BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
- LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
- FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
- CASH FLOW
- BALANCE SHEET
- GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
- BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
- SECTION 3 – APPENDIX
These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study.
Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi.
Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration.
After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.
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