The worldwide seafood catch is declining because of over-fishing, pollution and expanding populations. Although aquaculture now represents only a small percent of the combined total, a leveling off of the supply of seafood together with the rising demand for fin fish and crustaceans means that aquaculture is the growth industry of the future. In this light, much emphasis has been placed on species selection, adaptation, feeding, rearing, harvesting, equipment or on other physical devices. But, little thought has been given to the accompanying aquatic environment, other than to change the water.
Mother Nature just can’t cope with the overload in the oceans, let alone the
accumulation of uneaten feed, excreta, etc. in a confined aquatic environment.
Where the water can be changed, it must be cleaned more often. Where the water
can’t be changed, the confined aquatic environment deteriorates and so do
excreta create a sludge on the bottom and turbid water above. Digestion by
indigenous microorganisms is slow and takes dissolved oxygen away from the
crop. In addition, there is a build-up of ammonia, nitrites and other toxic or
inhibitory products. Therefore, to improve the aquatic environment, there must
be a reduction in accumulation of these substances. It is evident that these
problems will not go away on their own. Also, it is evident that chemical and
physical methods are costly and are only temporarily beneficial. To that
end, what can be done that is both safe and cost effective?
reduce the accumulation of sludge. This is done by bioaugmentation of the
existing microorganisms through regular addition of biological active seed
cultures such as ESS Microbes on a regular preventive maintenance schedule.
Bioaugmentation means helping Mother Nature do a better job microbiologically
by supplementing the indigenous microflora. This is in contrast to the
continued use of chemicals or increasing the frequency of water change, if, in
fact, the water can be changed at all. Just like aspirin relieves some cold
symptoms but does not cure the cold, chemical additives or water changes
temporarily relieve the symptoms of the poor aquatic environment, but do not
cure the problem.
Active Seed Cultures
cultures in the air, soil and water. These microflora exist because they have
adapted and continue to adapt to changes in the environment. They have adapted
because they can metabolize certain surrounding substances to obtain energy and
nutrients. But, this does not mean they can handle an ever-increasing load.
or crustaceans would probably clean itself over time. However, such a system
would not feed many people or make a profit for the grower. Intensive
aquaculture involves many fish or crustaceans and as many cycles as possible
during a season. Accordingly, the aquatic environment is not able to clean
itself under these circumstances, and limits have been reached in many places
as to water changes and the benefits of more chemical additives.
growth are symptoms of a bad aquatic environment. If the aquatic environment is
improved, the symptoms will disappear because the cause has been eliminated.
How can this be done?
regular additions of ESS Microbes which contains several strains of
naturally-occurring microorganisms that have been isolated and trained to
produce large amounts of digestive enzymes when introduced into an aquatic
environment. This on the job training has been done to the extent that these
biologically active seed cultures are strains which are 1000 times more active
than those found in nature. By adding on a regular basis, these more efficient
cultures establish themselves and maintain dominance over those less efficient
than involves two groups of microorganisms. The first step is oxidation of
ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas is the most common genus involved in this
reaction. The most common genus involved in the second stage, oxidation of
nitrite to nitrate, is Nitrobacter. Both of these genera are autotrophic and
subject to dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) limits.
They are very fastidious in growth habits and attempts to culture them
commercially have met with little success. Although ESS Microbes does not
contain either, the product enhances the natural action by creating a more favorable
environment, particularly by reducing the BOD. In addition, ammonia may be
oxidized directly to nitrogen gas. In any event, the ammonia levels are
aerobically oxidize organic matter can also reduce nitrites and nitrates and
thus function as facultative denitrifiers. Among these are members or the genus
Bacillus. ESS Microbes contains four species of this genus and the product
functions as a facultative denitrifier as evidenced by university results which
showed reductions in accumulation of nitrites and nitrates. Under low DO, the
oxygen in nitrites and nitrates is utilized. However, as stated above reduction
in nitrites and nitrates may be because of reduced ammonia accumulation.
function when the DO is above a critical level of 0.1 to 0.2 mg./L. A DO
similar to this or slightly higher than that for the autotrophs will also
inhibit activity of the facultative denitrifiers. If enough DO is available,
this will be used in preference to the oxygen in nitrites and nitrates.
(sludge such as accumulated excreta, uneaten feed, etc.) will inhibit
denitrification by the autotrophs. This does not influence the facultative
microorganisms. ESS Microbes reduces sludge generation and accumulation as
shown by its use in waste treatment plants and by university data. ESS Microbes
is a special formulation of ESS Microbes designed for use in saltwater
Nitrosomonas or Nitrobacter. However, not only does this product function as a
facultative denitrifier, it also creates a more favorable environment for the
autotrophs by reducing the BOD. In addition, ESS Microbes may oxidize or
otherwise utilize ammonia directly.
- SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
- OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
- MISSION STATEMENT
- SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
- PROJECT STATUS & START UP
- WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
- SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
- SECTION II – STUDY AREA
- STUDY AREA
- COMPANY OVERVIEW
- MANAGEMENT TEAM
- DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
- MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
- SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
- DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
- YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
- MARKET OVERVIEW
- MARKET SEGMENTATION
- RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
- KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
- LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
- MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
- SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
- SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
- TARGET CUSTOMERS
- CUSTOMER NEEDS
- MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
- BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
- MARKET SHARE
- SALES FORECASTING
- SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
- DIRECT COMPETITORS
- COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
- SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
- PRODUCTS & SERVICES
- FINISHED PRODUCTS
- PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
- PRODUCTION CAPACITY
- PROMOTIONS PLAN
- DISTRIBUTION PLAN
- SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
- GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
- TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
- PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
- SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
- REVENUE MODEL
- FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
- FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCE CHARGES
- FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
- FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
- CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCIAL MODELS
- SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
- BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
- OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
- TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
- FINANCING PLAN
- INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
- BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
- LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
- FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
- CASH FLOW
- BALANCE SHEET
- GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
- BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
- SECTION 3 – APPENDIX
These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study.
Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi.
Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration.
After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.
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