Pigs are animals of pink, black, or brown skin, with short legs a broad nose and short curly tails. They are basically for meat production called pork. They are heavy feeders and grown rapidly too. They can eat nearly anything and it contains a great quantity of oil and fat which reduce the number of people that consume the meat.
Pigs has been regarded as an unclean animal, it naturally likeness for dirt and decayed materials for food.
pigs that are seen every day and more especially, the level of approach to its
rearing which is just the ordinary, practical way among the low – income
earners. This method leaves a lot to be desired as far as pig breeding and
consumption is concerned.
have proved that pig offers the best potential of satisfying the meat needs of
the human population when compared with other livestock kept by man. Africans
are not adequately utilizing these potentialities.
SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION:
or scavenging: this system is also known as back yard system where they are
allowed to move about freely to feed themselves. This type of system expose the
pig to different kind of diseases and parasite also the animals involve are
usually dirty, the sight of them makes pork meat deplorable.
– extensive: the animal in the system are confined to the back yard or in a
large portion of land well fence with bamboo or mood house to restrict the
animal to that area. The animals are feed in the place with feed like forage,
left over from human feed, remain from harvest.
system: this system is by far higher than the other two. This system gives full
attention to the animals and it serves as a source of livelihood for the
farmer. As a result of this, more effort is made to provide the animals with
adequate feeding and housing. It is presume that farmer involve in this system
is technically competent and so, the nutritional needs of the animals are met and
mere is provision for health care.
system: this system comprises of intensive and a lot more. In integrated
system, it is not only adequate attention is given to the animals but also,
care is taken from the selected breed to be kept, to the management of the
waste which is recycled for other uses like the production of biogas. However,
it must be said that this system is capital intensive and that is the reason
why not too many farmers are into it.
CLASSIFICATION OF PIGS
– newly farrow pigs
– newly separated piglet from their mother
– growing weaners of about 3 months
–selected and separated female pigs for purpose of reproduction
– female pig
– male pig
PIGLET: The first day of farrow you clean
and disinfect the pen. You cut the abdominal cavity, leaying 1 inch and treat
the iodine. In the first three days of their lives you supply artificial source
of heat to keep them warm. On the third day of birth, you cut their canine
teeth up and down and give them iron injection. 3 – 4 weeks you can castrate
and wean after 45 days of their life.
WEANER: You give them vitamin 1 – 3 days of
their weaning to encourage them to feed more because they wouldn’t want to feed
on their own. Also you can deworm 2 weeks weaning them and feed them for 2
months before classifying them as growers.
GROWERS: They don’t need more medication but
at this stage they need quality and quantity feed.
GRITS: They are separated female pigs for
the purpose of reproduction. You that prospective sow among the growers, which you
can use to boost your stock density.
SOW: They come on heat every 3 – 4
months. After farrowing, they should be given iron injection and enough salt in
their feed so as to prevent them from eating up their litter ( piglets)
CHOOSING THE SITE FOR THE PIGGERY
many factors to be put into consideration. Some of these factors include:
Availability of water: The first and foremost factor to be
considered in sitting a piggery is the availability of water. The success of
the program depends to a large extent on the constant supply of water which is
used for the cleaning of the pens, drinking, cooling of the animals and the
administration of drugs. The piggery is therefore to be sited near a river or
any other form of constant water supply. Sinking a borehole in the absence of a
nearby river may not be out of the question.
Distance to residential areas: It is an already known fact that
pigs like dirts. Even in an integrated setup, where proper care of waste
disposition is ensured, it is still very pertinent to site the piggery in a
place relatively removed from where people are living. The reason behind this
is not just the sanitation aspect of it but to minimize problems that might be
caused to the neighbors such as noise.
Waste disposal: Pigs produce a large quantity of
bulky faeces over a short period of time. This problem is to recognized at the
very beginning of pig production. When this done, proper arrangement on their
disposal can also be made from the word go. But if it is not handled at the time,
it might constitute a perennial and nagging problem to the pig enterprise
later. This problem does not arise in an integrated system where pig dung is
ready raw material for the production of biogas and organic manure.
Accessibility: This is one of the most important
things in any profit – oriented enterprise, piggery is not an exception. This
site must be constructed in a place that can be very easily accessed. This will
make transportation of materials, personnel etc. easy and at the same time, increase
the number of people that can come and buy the products or help their
transportation to the market.
Sun direction: it is advisable that piggeries be
constructed following the east – west alignment so that rays of the sun will be
as much as possible avoided.
piggery, the farmer should decide on the breed and categories of pigs to be
kept. Tin’s will aid in determine the floor and feeding space for each category
of pig. Below is a table that can serve as a guide in the construction of a
piggery with particular reference to floor and feeding space allocation for the
different classes of pigs.
9 – 12m.sq
3 – 4m.sq
Gilts and sows
6 – 10m.sq
0.7 – 0.9m.sq
Porkers(40 – 60kg)
Baconers(60 – 90kg)
1.1 – 13m.sq
two rows of pen facing each other with a space of 1.5m between them for easy
movement of materials and staff. The sidewalls should be between 1 – 1.2m in
height while the evens height of the building should not be less than 2.5m. The
building itself should be about 3.6m in height.
an adjustment entrance. The first part of the pen should be under the roof of
the building while the other side should fall outside the roof. The size of the
pen is determined by the class of the feed in that pen as shown above the
coarsely cemented to prevent slipping and its finishing should be lowered
towards the dunging area to permit cleaning with water.
feeders, drinkers and wallows. These are constructed with concrete inside the
pen. The feeder and drinkers are about six inch deep. Their sizes are
determined by the class of pigs to be kept in the particular pen.
therefore, very easy to feed with cereal, grains, vegetables, fish and even
fruits. In actual fact, pig follows very closely to boilers in terms of
converting feed to flesh. As a result of omnivorous nature, pig does not
constitute big problems to their fanner regarding feeding, as is the case with
other animals. This reason is one of the things that boost the popular but
ineffective scavenging system.
system, where the goal is the profitability of the enterprise, the pigs are
adequately fed with formulated feeds, which will meet their nutritional and
physiological need so that both their growth rate and productivity can be
categories, we have the weaner’s feed, the grower’s feed and breeder feed.
The weaner’s feed: is very rich in protein and energy.
Its protein content is up to 18 – 20 % while the energy content is 3000 – 3200
kilo cal/kg. This feed is given to weaners at weaning, when they are about 5 –
10 kg in weight u[ to when they attain 35kg body of weight.
The grower’s feed: The energy content of this feed is
2800kcal/kg, it content also crude protein up to 16 -18 %. This feed is given
to the pigs from the time they attain 35kg – 100kg of body weight. The
important of this feed in relation to pigs being kept for the market cannot be
over emphasized. It is this feed that quicken die fattening of the pigs and
make them ready for sale.
The breeders’ feeds: this is a special feed for both sow
and boar reproducers. It is composed of regulated protein and energy designed
for reproductive efficiency. This means that this feed helps to reduce the
excess fats which if not checked, can lead to the loss of the libido and also
to a reduce reproductive performance. As a result of this, there is need to
check excess weight in the animals, the energy content of this feed is reduced
to 1600 – 2800 kcal/kg and its crude protein to 14 – 16%.
WATER REQUIREMENT IN PIGS.
available to the pigs.
Metabolic water: this is formed in the body of the
animals through the natural metabolism of food breakdown; this means that in
the process of breaking down the fats, carbohydrates and proteins taken in by
the animal via its food, some amount of water is deposited in the body of the
Water mixed with their feed: as said earlier, it is very
advisable to mix water in the feed that is served with pigs. This help in the
easy of digestion of feed. At the same time, it adds to the water makeup of the
Water serve in the water troughs: water is very essential to pig
production. The amount of water that is supplied into the metabolic system of
the animal through the two source enumerated above is not enough to meet the
physiological and production needs of the animal. As a result of this water
should be constantly supplied into their drinking troughs.
per every kilogramme of feed eaten.
DISEASES AND PARASITES OF PIGLETS:
Piglet anaemia: this is a very serious and fatal
disease, which affect piglets as a result of their being raised on a concrete
floor where he doesn’t have access to red soil. The symptoms of this malady
include: weakness, rough hair coat and general unthriftness. The disease becomes
very noticeable from fifth day of birth to for tenth day. This disease is checked
through the injection of iron three days after their birth or by allowing the
piglets access to iron rich red soil.
Collibacilosis: this is a bacterial disease of the
piglet easily identified through the white and yellow coloration of their
faeces. It can be controlled by the injection of antibiotics like oxycline and
Scours: this disease is particular to newly
weaned piglets. It is caused by salmonella organisms, but provoked by the
stress of weaning. This disease is characterized by diarrhea, followed by
weakness and loss weight. However, it can be controlled through the
administration of antibiotics.
Mange: this is a parasitic infestation of
piglets and older pigs caused by the mange mites. When this happens, there is
the formation of crust – like materials on the skin of the animal and it experience
itching noticeable by the way it scratches itself on hard surfaces. In severe
infestation, there is loss of hair and even death in piglets. This disease is
treated with medicines like ivomec, teigal and butox
Intestinal worms: there are various types of
intestinal worms that afflict pigs but the major importance are the round worms
(Ascarisspp) and tape worm (taeniaspp). Intestinal and other endo – parasites
of pigs cause a lot of discomfort to the pigs which lead to reduced growth
rate, unthriftness and death, especially of drugs like Ivomec, Finiworm,
Levamisode, Piperazine etc.
DISEASE AND PARASITES OF SOWS
Agalactia: this has to do with the inability of
the female animal’s mammary glad to production milk shortly after parturition.
This can be treated by the injection of synthetic hormone oxytoxin immediately
this problem is detected.
Mastitis: this disease is the inflammation of
the mammary glands, which can lead to agalctia. symptoms include hotness of the
mammary glands when touched with the animal showing signs of pain when the
mammary glands are touched or when the piglets are suckling. There also
expression of brown milk from the teat and expression of milk tainted with
blood. Giving antibiotic to the sow during or shortly after farrowing prevents
Metritis: tin’s is inflammation of the uterus
and is characterized by the mucous secretion from the vulva 1- 3 days after
farrowing, which becomes progressively foul smelling by passage of each day.
Prevention is by the administration of antibiotics during or shortly after
can also be affected by diarrhea, intestinal worms and mange mites as found in
piglets and therefore, the method of treatment is the same.
MANAGEMENT OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF
Management of piglets:
that depend on sow’s milk as their principle source of feeding. Pigs that are
from one day to six weeks or eight weeks old depending on the duration weaning
period falls within this category. They require extremely carefulness around
this period so that they can survive and perform adequately. Areas to be taken
care of include:
and disinfecting and cutting of their Umbilical cords shortly after farrowing.
of their canine teeth 1 – 3 days after farrowing.
Supplying them with artificial source of heat during the first three days of
them iron injection three day after parturition: these may however not
necessary where pigs rises on un – cemented floor with access to red soil.
them prevention medication against collibacilosis and treating such case
whenever they occur.
the males not needed for future reproduction at 3 – 4 weeks of their life.
Management of weaners:
their mothers. Proper care ought to be given to them to suppress three major
source of stress introduced as a result of weaning. These are includes:
of anti – stress vitamins for the first three days after weaning. Starting them
off with little quantity of feed and a gradual increment after they have become
adjusted to the feed.
the feed with energy diluents like brewer’s waste, dried grains and wheat offal
if scouring occurs.
them after two weeks weaning them and repeat this 2 to 3 months afterwards.
medication to control and prevent external parasite like lice and mites 1 – 2
weeks after weaning repeating this 2 – 3 months afterwards.
them with libitum up to three months weaning.
Management of growers:
stress OT weaning. Pigs in this class include those that are up to 20 – 90 kg
body weight. The principal need of these classes of pigs is maintenance on good
feeding plan. When they attain 30kg body weight, male should be separated from
the females if this had not be done earlier it may cause precocious and
unplanned breeding. At this time, selection is done. Those to be groomed for
replacing the gilts and sows for future reproduction are kept apart while the
rest are channeled towards fattening up for the market. Grower should also be
dewormed every 2– 3 months and dipped or sprayed at interval of the same period
tp prevent or control ectoparasites.
Management of gilts:
experience farrowing. They are females of grower category that have been
selected for future reproduction. The management aspect of gilts therefore is
similar to that of growers but for the fact that the farmer must be very
conscious of the age and weight at which the gilt is brought for reproduction.
about eight months old or when they have attained at least 60kg of body weight.
This is done so as to avoid given birth to small litter size and weight.
Management of sows:
newly weaned off it’s piglets it should be taken to the dry sow’s quarters where
good quality of feed is given to it so that it can be conditioned for the next
heat period and to increase the number of ova that will be shed. Sows should be
kept within the vicinity of the dominant boar where the smell and grunts
emanating from boar will provoke the sow to quickly return on heat.
showing standing heat and this usually the second day after commencement of
heat. The oestrous cycle in pig is between 18 – 24 days with an average of 21
days, while heating period last for 3 days.
morning or late in the evening this is because the heat of the day affects the
boar’s sexual drive or libido and subsequently, sperm quantity. The second
mating for the sow should be done 12 hours after the first to increase the rate
incessant grunting noise.
is placed on it’s back.
should be feed restrictively to prevent from getting too fat. The sow is not to
be service if it does not return to heat 21days after mating. The gestation periods
last for 115days. Three weeks to farrow the sow must be taken to the farrowing
pen so that it can get use to the new environment. The energy content of the
feed can at this time be beefed up to encourage milk production and also to
fortify the sow against the stress of farrowing.
giving birth, the farmer should be there to assist should complications
(farrowing problems) arises. Some of the problems that can come up include
cannibalism, prolonged farrowing, obstruction of the birth canal and agalactia.
Under normal circumstance farrowing take up to 2 – 6 hours depending on litter
size. The end of farrowing is signaled by ejection of after birth placenta.
After farrowing sow should be place in high proteinous and energy rich feed.
These should be maintaining throughout their lactation period so as to increase
rate of milk production.
Management of boars:
good plan for feeding must be put in place for boars used for reproduction.
This will enhance their reproductive performance and at the same time prevent
it from accumulating excess fats, which will reduce its sexual drive or libido.
active at about third month after its birth. Although young boar can be used
for reproduction from their eight months of age, it is advisable that they
should be left until eleventh month when the quantity and quality of their
semen should have reach the peak. Young and virgin boar must not be brought to
a very big sow for mating. If it happens, the sow will is very likely to snob
it and it will lead to frustration, bitter sexual experience can result in
reduction in sexual drive. A young boar of eight months should not be used for
mating twice a week but older ones beyond one year can be should for mating up
to seven times a week without any reduction in their reproductive performance.
boars should not be kept away from sow they should keep close to where they can
perceive odour and sound of the sows. Mating should carry out by introducing
sow to boar.
- SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
- OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
- MISSION STATEMENT
- SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
- PROJECT STATUS & START UP
- WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
- SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
- SECTION II – STUDY AREA
- STUDY AREA
- COMPANY OVERVIEW
- MANAGEMENT TEAM
- DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
- MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
- SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
- DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
- YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
- MARKET OVERVIEW
- MARKET SEGMENTATION
- RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
- KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
- LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
- MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
- SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
- SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
- TARGET CUSTOMERS
- CUSTOMER NEEDS
- MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
- BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
- MARKET SHARE
- SALES FORECASTING
- SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
- DIRECT COMPETITORS
- COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
- SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
- PRODUCTS & SERVICES
- FINISHED PRODUCTS
- PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
- PRODUCTION CAPACITY
- PROMOTIONS PLAN
- DISTRIBUTION PLAN
- SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
- GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
- TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
- PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
- SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
- REVENUE MODEL
- FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
- FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCE CHARGES
- FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
- FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
- CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS
- FINANCIAL MODELS
- SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
- BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
- OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
- TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
- FINANCING PLAN
- INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
- BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
- LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
- FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
- CASH FLOW
- BALANCE SHEET
- GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
- BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
- SECTION 3 – APPENDIX
These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study.
Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi.
Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration.
After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.
- Bank Deposit
- Electronic Fund Transfer or western money transfer
- ATM cash Transfer
This payment method requires the customer to deposit, Electronic
Fund Transfer or ATM cash Transfer directly from his/her account into any of CHRIS FARM NIGERIA bank accounts.
If it is an E-Book, project materials, written project or written feasibility study, it will be sent to your immediately as soon as your transaction reflects in our account.
Please note; it will take ten working days to write (or prepare) a feasibility study or a project on your request.
Our bank details are on the website page, Just click on payment to get them
After placing your order, SMS your payment information (Manual title,
Name on teller, payment teller number, and your e-mail address)
E.g. catfish, Kelechi Bisi Amina,531796,email@example.com
To +2348036925718 or +2348051270981 once I confirm your payment.
The material will be sent to your immediately! By e-mail Trust us 100% to do that.
Advantages of sending your request via email your e-book (electronic book) is downloadable from your e-mail box which allows you to read and print out this book
• Zero shipping costs.
• No wasting time, forget having to wait weeks for postal delivery.
• No risk of products lost in the mail or damaged
Thinking that we might live you after your purchase? Definitely no!
With the CBN policy in Nigeria via bank verification number (BVN), is almost impossible to steal your money from bank transfer or bank payment.
We assure you of maximum support when you need us. Please, do not hesitate to ask us for the way forward.
Get in touch with us today on our phone numbers or send us an email. We await your response……………………….
WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY CHRIS FARM NIGERIA
PHONE: +234(803)-692-5718 or +234(805)-127-0981
LIKE US ON FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/chrisfarmnigeria
FOLLOW US ON TWITTER: www.twitter.com/chrisfarm9ja
- We provide feasibility study/business plan for new and existing businesses
- We help you to recruit staff for your company, firm or organizations
- We help you in registering your company, firm or organizations
- Suppliers of any food stuffs
- Building contractor (especially building houses, constructions of ponds)
- Provides Architect for any design
- Help you in getting loans
- Sales of fingerlings, table size catfish, chicks, Grass-cutters, rabbits, snails, and many more
- Farm design
- Feed formulation for general livestock, including
- Floating/Sinking Fish feed
- Soybean oil processing, Teachings on how to test soybean cake,
- Teaching on how to remove the gummy and unpleasant smell of soybean oil
- Palm Oil/Palm nut cracking
- Fish Farming (Pond Construction and Fingerlings distribution)
- Poultry farm (plus marketing ideas)
- Rabbit farming
- Snail Farming
- Grass-cutter/cane rat Farming
- Commercial Crop Farming
- Handwork/Workshop Plan
- Pure Water Business
- Nylon production
- Professional Website design (cooperate and personal)
- Bulk SMS (plus re-seller website)
- Business Software Design
- Logo design plus company slogan
- Printing Press (Graphic design, lithography, banners, poster, handbills etc)
- Sales of battery cage for livestock farming all over Nigeria
- E-books on; Broilers farming, Layers farming, Grass-cutter farming, Rabbit farming, Pig farming, Catfish farming, and many more……
- How to own, manage, and make millions from catfish production (Most demanded)
- Projecting writing, Sales of written projects, and many more…………