Who is the pond for?
What is the pond for?
What size of pond?
The most important decision is going to be where the pond is sited. If sited poorly then the pond may not attract the wildlife needed for studies or worse yet fail to become established.
Below are several suggestions to consider when choosing the location and design of the pond.
Procedure to Site the pond
Location in school grounds
Only use/choose a site where you know the pond will provide a richer habitat than the one it is replacing. Never replace a more valuable habitat such as marsh land or temporary ponds. Depending on the size and location of your new pond, you may have to get consent from various public bodies before you start work. Small garden ponds normally don’t require permission. For other projects, you may need to talk to the local planning authority, the Environment Agency, the County Archaeologist, the Highways Agency, the local authority Rights of Way Officer or Natural England.
Surface run-off- This is water that runs into the pond from higher ground. Usually through vegetation, soil, sub-surface or off tarmac, concrete etc. The cleanest water will come from unfertilized areas such as woodland or grassland. The most polluted will come from terraced area run off.
Groundwater- This is the naturally occurring water in the ground or water table in the catchments area which is usually occurring in sandy or gravel areas. In intensively urban areas this is the cleanest source of water as it has been pre-filtered through the sub-surface. A test pit can be dug however unless the substrate is very dense clay the water will not be retained. A lined pond cannot be easily fed this way.
Streams and ditches- These may seem the most attractive source of water for ponds; however these can be problematic for several reasons. The first is seasonal fluctuations in water levels, during the summer most streams and ditches dry up. The second reason is that many streams run off arable farms and can be heavily polluted by fertilizers and polluted sediments.
The Plate Design
Lining Material – There a several options available for lining materials
Puddled Clay– This is the traditional way of creating ponds. If the area is of particular dense clay you may simply be able to dig down to the water table to fill it that way. Otherwise the traditional way is to dig your pond, allowing for the thickness of 30cm of the clay on the soil, layer it with clay and puddle it. When laying the clay 1m3 equals 2 tonnes. It is essential to calculate the amount of clay needed to finish the pond within the day ensuring that there is surplus should a problem arise or after completion before filling. The most important thing is to stop the clay drying out during the puddling process. This can be achieved by using plastic sheets over the areas of clay already laid. The puddling process itself is a form of compaction where the structure of the clay is broken down and the air pressed out of the material. Traditionally this was done by corralling a herd of livestock or methodical marching by men. Nowadays it is done by a “whacker” plate. The clay is best laid in tiny sections like concrete slabs to ensure smooth joints and a perfect fit. This way it also stops slipping and allows the pond to be laid in sections so it can be puddled. The puddling forms a continuous layer of clay that is water tight. This requires specialists to be contact for advice, and most likely the design and construction.
Concrete – Concrete linings are used for all sizes and shapes of ponds. They have many advantages when employed in a school or urban environment. They can be used without fear of damaging the lining through netting or other survey techniques, including wading or use of tools such as spades etc. Because of the lack of a liner they are for all intense and purposes vandal proof. They are durable if constructed properly able to withstand erosion and can go for long periods of time with drops in water level.
However there are drawbacks to such a design. Specialists are needed to design and construct the pond. If a pond is larger than 8m x 5m then it will need to be reinforced. The cement used is harmful to aquatic life so requires a seasoning period. Where the pond must be emptied and refilled several times. If the concrete is improperly laid or damaged it can be costly or difficult to repair. This would require the water level to be dropped below that of the damage for a prolonged period of time.
Any turf that is removed could be used in other areas or replaced around the pond. Depending on the size of the pond it may be easier to hire a mechanical digger to speed the process up. If one is hired be sure there is access to the site and that the operator is well briefed as to the depth, size and profile of the pond. A supervisor should be on site during the excavation process. Final details such as shelves and draw-down areas should be completed by rake or spade. If it is a small pond then it could be done by hand, a small group of volunteers with spades could be persuaded if a day was made of it with a BBQ etc. Draw-down areas should be less than 5cm deep and contain hummocks and hollows.
As the pond is dug any sharp stones or tree roots should be removed, otherwise they could pierce the liner and the pond will leak. If large rocks are found they could be used around or in the pond to create new habitats. Shallow or draw-down zones, shelves or shallow areas should only contain pebbles or gravel.
The sides of the pond must be checked to ensure they are flat and even. The pond must be level otherwise the water will not collect evenly at either ends, exposing sides to harmful UV light which will damage the liner. To hide the liner dig a trench, 30mm deep and one spades width wide. After filling the excess liner is placed in the trench and then soil or turf is placed over it to anchor it in.
Once you are happy with the depth and profile of the pond the matting is laid down. This protects the liner, it can be 2.5cm to 7cm cm of builders sand, old carpet or layers of old newspapers (though these rot away quickly). There are commercial matting materials available such as geotextile matting; custom made materials which would protect the pond better however are considerably more expensive. It has been known for some ponds to have another layer of geotextile matting on top and below the liner. This offers some protection from nets.
The pond liner once laid should have a 300mm overlap around the edge. To work out how much pond liner you will need to use this equation
Length of Pond= A
Width of Pond = B
Depth of Pond = C
Size of Liner (Square Metres) = (A 2C 0.6) x (B 2C 0.6)
The pond is now ready to have water added. The best water to add to the pond is rain water. Slowly add the water ensuring that the liner is slowly molding to the profile shape intended. If adding soil to provide a substrate for planting the substrate must not be top soil, sieve the soil to remove all sharp objects and stones. Once in the pond and before filling with water, place a piece of polythene sheeting over the soil, this will help stop the scouring of the soil and can be removed later. Another option is to run the water over a pebble beach or stony structure. Once the pond is full you are able to hide the edges of the pond liner. The extra pond liner is then covered by turf or soil removed earlier or under paving
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- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
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- CASH FLOW
- BALANCE SHEET
- GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
- BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
- SECTION 3 – APPENDIX
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