Snails can be found in many habitats and can sometimes be pests not only in our landscapes, But can be highly detrimental to plants in production. In Nigeria there are numerous native and newly imported snail species. Most land snails are not pests. They feed on algae and fungi, a few are predatory. Some tree snails are considered endangered and are protected. However, there are several species that are pests and require management, but it is imperative that the snail is identified as a pest before treatments are initiated.
Most recently, one of the worst snail pests in the world, the giant African land snail, was found in Miami-Dade County. It has been observed to feed on more than 500 different plants and also presents a human health hazard because it can transmit disease organisms to plants and animals, including humans. Most of the feeding damage is expected to be on vegetables, flowers and other ornamental plants and to annual weeds. It also has an affinity for substrates with calcium for shell building and can often be found on the side of concrete buildings or building materials (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in904).
Management of Snail
To date, there is little information available on the management of the giant African land snail. However, there is information available for general snail management, but many of the methods have not been proven on a snail of this size. Growers in south Florida and particularly in Miami Dade County should be on the outlook for the giant African land snail. Steps can be taken to minimize the likelihood of snail introductions and establishment in nurseries. Plants and other articles coming into the nursery should be inspected for snails and initially segregated. Growers should establish a snail identification/education program for all employees and an ongoing monitoring program so that any suspect snail can be identified and steps taken to potentially eradicate or control snail infestations as early as possible. Snails are generally active at night and on cloudy, rainy days. They seek shaded, sheltered resting locations with high humidity when general environmental conditions are hot and dry. In south Florida where much of the year is humid or wet, snails can be found anywhere. As we move into the dryer, winter months, the snails may seek moist areas or areas under irrigation. When conditions become unfavorable, snails can become inactive or go into a “resting” period called aestivation in which they withdraw into their shell and do not feed. Control is typically not possible if snails are in this “resting” condition.
a. At night, search for presence of the snails.
b. During the day, search for snail trails and damage
c. Pay particular attention to moist areas or very susceptible plants such as seedlings or more succulent plants.
d. Trapping – various types of traps or attractive items can be used to lure snails. Banana and papaya are particularly attractive to the giant African land snail and can be used to catch them. Most traps only work for snails in the immediate vicinity.
e. While monitoring, handpicking snails will help. If done thoroughly and on a regular basis it can be an effective control method. Gloves should always be worn when handling snails.
2. Unfriendly snail environment – Modify your environment to reduce the number of snails
a. Remove hiding places such as boards, stones, debris, weedy and leafy branches growing close to the ground, dense ground covers, etc.
b. If possible, create a less humid environment (i.e. less irrigation; drip irrigation versus sprinkler)
c. Place copper foil or screening on benches or around areas for protection
d. Dry, abrasive materials such as diatomaceous earth can also be used as a barrier, however, once wet it no longer works. This method may not be suitable for some situations but should be considered if feasible and if the material can be kept dry.
a. Iron Phosphate (Sluggo; Escar-Go; numerous over-the-counter products)
i. Product must be ingested; snails are sensitive to iron toxicity
ii. Causes snails to stop feeding.
iii. Safe for use around animals.
b. Metaldehyde baits (Deadline; Trails End; Slugfest; several over-the-counter products) –
Probably most widely used and has been shown to be efficacious against many snail pests.
i. Toxic both by contact and ingestion
ii. Breaks down rapidly in moisture and sunlightOctober 2011
iii. Poisonous to pets and wildlife; Use care when using, however, these products
are not restricted use and are available in professional and over-the-counter products.
iv. Different formulations (pellets, mini-pellets, coarse meal, and liquids); some
Formulations are combined with carbaryl).
v. Most effective under warm temperatures; low humidity.
vi. Sometimes snails can recover after ingestion particularly if they can get to water or moist conditions.
c. Methiocarb (Carbamate)
i. Sold as a spray and bait formulation (Mesurol 75WP, Mesurol Pro).
ii. Sometimes used in combination with metaldehyde.
iii. Less effective under cool, wet conditions.
iv. Fast acting; stomach and contact poison.
v. Restricted use pesticide.
d. Borates – Baits containing boric acid.
i. Inhibit respiration.
ii. No resistance to these products is likely to occur.
iii. More effective against slugs than snails but may be effective against giant
African land snail.
e. Repellents – These products do not control the pest but help to keep them out of certain areas much the same as placing copper barriers. Examples include garlic extract, cinnamon oil and Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate and lime). Other products are being reviewed, but often these may not be feasible in a production environment.
NOTE: When using baits, it is best to use after watering or irrigation, however, try to place the
bait in drier areas. Do not water or irrigate after applying bait.
NOTE: Use of mollusicides should be in accordance with the label instructions. It is important that identification of the target snail is determined before application. Florida has many endangered and protected snails that could be harmed in improper use of pesticides.
f. Natural Enemies – In general there are numerous natural enemies that feed on snails which include ground beetles, pathogens, snakes, toads, turtles, and birds, but most do not usually provide satisfactory control. However, there are no proven, commercially available natural enemies for snail control currently available in the U.S. In California, the use of a predatory snail was approved to use in citrus orchards for brown citrus snail. The use of the predatory snail was combined with several other methods to manage the snail. October 2011, approaching snail management in an integrated approach will likely be necessary. In California, a successful snail management program for brown citrus snail included the release of a
Predatory snail, use of copper bands, pruning, applications of copper sulfate and iron
Phosphate, metaldehyde and a foliar application of phosmet which was allowed under a special Exemption. In the future, the development of a specific management program for the giant African land snail may be necessary. At this time, it is imperative to monitor for these snails as they are being found at numerous locations within Miami-Dade County and to manage any pest snail problems within your production area.
Do you need a business plan to raise fund for your business? We can help you develop a unique business plan tailored to suit your needs.
Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit.
Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.
OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;
SECTION 1(Business plan section)
SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
PROJECT STATUS & START UP
WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
SECTION II – STUDY AREA
DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
PRODUCTS & SERVICES
PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)
SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
SECTION 3 – APPENDIX
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·BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State.
These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.
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Floating/Sinking Fish feed
Soybean oil processing, Teachings on how to test soybean cake,
Teaching on how to remove the gummy and unpleasant smell of soybean oil
Palm Oil/Palm nut cracking
Fish Farming (Pond Construction and Fingerlings distribution)
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