Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans

Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans is a free guide. Intuitively, this guide opens you up to some topic on our feed Formulation Ebook.  These ebbok is a must get. Place your order Now! Furthermore, it also talk about Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans.

Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans

More on Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans

Intuitively, there are lots of information on Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans. Similarly, opening a company for this business needs capital. Professional Business plan and a feasibility study writing is a must. This has the propensity to give you a Loan, grant or investor signups. Watch our videos tag; difference between a feasibility study and a business plan to get a clear understanding. Contact Us Today, Let’s Help You Prepare An Irresistible Business Plan And A Feasibility Study Report

 

Some Content On Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans

Feed Formulation (Doing It Yourself) Business Plans

  • Feed mill
  • Factors to be considered before embarking on feed formulation
  • Materials need for feed formulation
  • Know the nutrient in your feeds
  • Formulating the feed
  • Pearson square formula
  • 19.5% crude protein feed for layers, ‘formulated’

FEED MILL

Feed mill is a department in livestock production that is made up of one or more buildings where feeds are formulated, processed, packaged and send to various livestock farms to meet their animal needs. This is an important branch in the livestock industry, where feeds are being prepared to meet the nutritional requirement of farm animals.
Feed mill is of paramount importance, as it contributes about 85% valve to any agricultural based industry that has animal husbandry as its focus.
Feed formulation is the process of quantifying the amount of feed ingredients needed for a particular animal in the right proportion.  

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED BEFORE EMBARKING ON FEED FORMULATION

  • Age of animal

  • Origin of animal

  • Nutritional requirement of animal

  • Availability of animal

MATERIALS NEED FOR FEED
FORMULATION

· 

CARBOHYDRATE [energy sources (COH)]

1.      Maize

2.     Cassava

3.     Rice

4.     Yam

·
PROTEIN (including amino acids)

1.     Soya bean cake (SBC)

2.     Groundnut cake (GNC)

3.     Fish Meal

·
CALCIUM

  • Bone meal

  • Oyster shell

  • Periwinkle shell meal

  • Limestone

  • Snail shell

·
FIBERS

  • Wheat offal

  • Palm kernel cake (PKC)

  • Rice bran

  • Soya beans offal

·
MINERALS(supplements/premixes)

  • Salt

  • Lysine

  • Methionine

·
FAT AND OIL (also essential fatty acids)

1.     Animal fat

2.     Vegetable oil

·
VITAMIN

·
Vitamin supplements/premixes

KNOW THE NUTRIENT IN YOUR
FEEDS  

 

 


Fish meal is the highest quality protein source
commonly available for feed formulation purposes, especially, when is made from
a good quality whole fish.


It is also a rich source of energy and minerals


Fish meals are highly digestible, highly palatable, good
smell that gives it a welcoming smell.


It contains about 65% protein content with 80%
digestibility 


Its high in LYS, MET (deficient in plant sources)


Fish meal also contains 1-2.5% n-6 fatty acids,
essential to many fish and all shrimp


If made from byproducts, its quality is not as good
as trawler-caught


The only problem observed is its high ash content,
which sometimes result in mineral imbalance


It is not used sparingly because of its high cost in
the market.


It can be partially replaced by soybean meal and
other animal meals


When using Fish Meal, one must remember that it
cannot be stored forever


It can rancidify due to high lipid content


further, not all Fish Meal is created equal


some types (menhaden) appear to be superior to
others (sardine meal)


Fish Meal must be very well ground and sieved to
help remove indigestible parts



Soybean Meal (SBM)

 


Soybean meal has one of the best essential amino
acid profiles of all protein-rich plant feedstuffs

http://www.chrisfarmnigeria.com


Soybean Meal does not appear to be deficient in any
EAA for catfish


Soybean Meal can be deficient, because their MET/CYS
requirement is twice that of catfish


some fish find Soybean Meal unpalatable, for this
reason maximum levels are suggested


Soybean meal is commonly used as a substitute for
fish meal, however, is only to a point


shrimp will consume high Soybean Meal feeds, but
diet must be supplemented with fish meal at some point


another problem involves losses in energy, minerals
and lipids in diets where Soybean Meal replaces Fish Meal or other animal
byproduct proteins


Another variety of soybean meal is known as
“de-hulled”


de-hulled soybean meal contains 25% less ME, 85%
less available P and 90% less n-3 FA’s than anchovy meal


soybeans also contain trypsin-inhibitors


trypsin inhibitor reduces digestibility of soy
protein by the enzyme trypsin


solution:
most soybeans are roasted prior to milling (destroys inhibitor)


Full-fat Soybeans


Full
fat soybean meal is different from regular Soybean Meal in that it has a full fat complement


Full
fat Soybean has not been solvent
extracted


Full fat Soybean often used as an energy source or for general balancing of
the formula


mainly
used in salmonid (cold water) fish diets


Grains and By-products (carbohydrate → COH)


Grains
are primarily used as COH sources


when
whole, they contribute about 62%-72% of dietary starch


starches
are fairly well digested by warm-water species (60-70%), but not by cold


heating
COH via extrusion improves digestibility by 10=15%


COH
can also be used as binding agents


Corn
is commonly used in the U.S., but is high in xanthophyll (a pigment), giving
tissue a yellow color (not good for fish sales!)


corn
gluten meal is high in protein (60%) and contains high levels of MET (excellent
for formulation)


rice
bran often used in developing countries due to local rice production


rice
bran is a reasonable COH source, but is high in fiber and fat


wheat
gluten is a good protein source, but too expensive, often used as a binder


Animal By-products

http://www.chrisfarmnigeria.com          http://www.chrisfarmnigeria.com meat bone meal

 


Meat and bone meal is a byproduct of the slaughter
house


contains 50-55% crude protein


protein quality is low, so only marginally useful
and varies dependent upon meat source


can be a good source of energy, P, TM’s


another problem:
high ash content


digestibility improved by flash- or spray-drying


poultry by-product meal (PBM) is often used by mills
also producing chicken feed


feather meal high in protein, but indigestible

Crustacean Meals

http://www.chrisfarmnigeria.com krill meal


Shrimp waste meal is a reasonably good feed
ingredient, if heads are included


otherwise, the shell is primarily chitin and of
limited digestibility


the ammonia in chitin accounts for about 10-15% of
the nitrogen in whole meal


also a reasonable source of n-3 fatty acids,
cholestrerol and astaxanthin (carotenoid)


highly palatable and often serves as an attractant
in feeds at 1-2%


others:  krill
meal, Artemia meal


Fats and Oils


Used as energy sources, provide essential fatty
acids, attractant, coating of pellet to reduce abrasion


both animal and plant fats can be used, animal fats
cheaper, better attractants


marine lipids often added as oils if FM level is low
(otherwise no source of marine FA’s)


sources:
menhaden, shark, cod liver


must be careful in storage of oil, feeds with oils
due to rancidification


Fibrous Feedstuffs

 rice kernel 

 


Most monogastric animals (e.g., fish) do not digest
fibrous feedstuffs well


it is unlikely that adding fiber to diets already
with more than 3-5% will have any beneficial effect


high fiber content reduces binding capacity of
feeds, inhibits intake (due to reduced palatability), increases rate of passage
and waste production


sources:
brans



Binding Agents




Binding agents are really needed for pelletized
feeds, but not necessarily for extruded feeds (we discuss this later)


in extruded feeds, all ingredients are gelatinized
by high temperature and bind together well as a result of the process


most organic binders are good for about 30 min of
submergence


starch is often used at over 10%, however it will
hydrate and swell the pellet


chemical binders (e.g., Basfin) have good binding
potential, form cross-linkages with COH and PRO, but are toxic



Basic Facts


In addition to the essential nutrients, feeds may
contain organic and inorganic materials that have various effects on aquatic
species:


beneficial, detrimental or negligible


they can affect growth, health or the processed
product


may be naturally occurring, intentionally or
unintentionally added


can be produced via microbial growth

Toxins and Antimetabolites


The more important toxins affecting animal feeding
are those associated with molds


these are called “mycotoxins”


three important genera are Aspergillus, Penicillium
and Fusarium


they exist and grow anywhere as long as there is
enough COH substrate, no less than 14% moisture, adequate temperature, oxygen


usually produced in feedstuffs prior to harvest, but
also result from poor storage



Aflatoxin


Aflatoxin is the mycotoxin of greatest concern in
feeding of culture species


both outright toxic and carcinogenic


liver (hepatoma) and blood clotting problems


rainbow trout are highly sensitive at 1 ug/kg
exposure


traditionally, sources include corn, cottonseed and
peanuts


aflatoxin contamination varies year to year

Ochratoxin


These are compounds produced by Aspergillus and
Penicillium molds


widely found in nature


typically associated with kidney toxicity


toxic level is 4.7 mg/kg in diet


other mold toxins have been found in warm-blooded
animals, but not in fish


most mold toxins also destroy nutrients in feeds


example:  Pseudomonas
can separate glutamic acid from folic acid, making it ineffective


Microbial Toxins in Commercial Fish/shrimp Feeds


Usually not known that the feed is contaminated


commercially-processed feeds are less likely to have
these toxins


screened against international transport and by feed
manufacturers by law


must contain less than 20 ppb


up to manufacturer to require testing


not destroyed by steam pelleting or extrusion


presence in feeds reduced by proprionic acid



Histamine


This is a toxic compound found in fish meal, a
typical feed ingredient


results from bacterial removal of COOH (carboxylic
acid) from the EAA histidine


comes from improper storage of raw fish prior to
production of fish meal


causes a reduction in growth rate


usually comes from “dark” meat portion of fish


other fish meal toxin is “gizzerosine”

Phytic Acid, Gossypol


Phytic acid is an organic molecule related to
inositol


integral component of plant feedstuffs and holds
60-70% of the phosphorus


problem is, it’s poorly available to fish


reduces availability of zinc


“Gossypol” is a component of pigment lands in the
cotton plant


limits availability of cottonseed meal used in feeds
(suppresses growth rate and causes liver damage)


Fish Oils, Fiber


Marine fish oils contain 20-25% PUFA’s


the “autoxidation” of PUFA’s results in formation of
large numbers of free radicals and peroxide compounds


these are toxic due to reaction with other
nutrients, limiting availability


also cause cellular/subcellular damage


severity of effect reduced by Vit E


fiber can also be mildly “toxic” as it increases
rate of gut passage


high rate of passage causes reduced availability of
nutrients


Diet Additives:
Hormones



Hormonal control used to produce mono sex cultures
of fish


reduces reproduction/increases growth


ex. Androgenic steroids (ethyltestosterone) fed to
tilapia fry = 90% males


does not work the same on all fish


17-alpha-methyltestosterone improves growth and
survival in salmonids


andorgenic better than estrogenic


used as implants in cattle

Pellet Binders


Steam pelleted aquatic feeds, especially those fed
to shrimp, contain binders


these are used for improving water stability
(reduced leaching and nutrient loss)


two different types:
organic matrix (lignosulfonates or polysaccharides)


other type:
chemical compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate)


no evidence of detrimental effect on aquaculture
species 



Antibiotics


Some feeds can be formulated with antibiotics for
treatment of Vibriosis, other bacterial infections


Three antibiotics approved in U.S. are
sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine and terrymycin (oxytetracycline, OTC)


OTC commerically available as “medicated” fish
(shrimp) feed, 1,500 mg/kg


Must not feed medicated diets within 14-21 days from
slaughter/harvest (more regulations!)


Attractants


Attractants are materials added to feeds to serve as
intake (feeding) stimulants


They are cost effective since they cause shrimp/fish
to eat feeds that otherwise would not be attractive (consumed)


Facilitates inclusion of by-products


Usual inclusion level is around 0.5-1.0 %, largely
due to cost


Examples:
krill meal, Artemia meal, fish oils, fish meal


Sometimes used to reduce protein content of feed
(but most also feed more frequently)


Antioxidants


Oxidation of lipids in feeds or feedstuffs can cause
reduction of the nutritional value of certain lipids and vitamins


It can also result in production of toxic free
radicals and peroxides (REM?)


Potential for formation of these toxic compounds
reduced by synthetic compounds such as BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT
(butylated hydroxytoluene)


NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN ANIMALS

Different animals need
different nutrients to do well in terms of productivity and body build up.

            For example, layers will need much of energy feed
(carbohydrates) to be able to produce more eggs, and a drop in the level of
energy will reduce eggs production. Again, birds like broilers will need much
of body-building feeds (protein) for them to gain weight.

            Pigs will need much of fats and oil (palm kernel cake)
and protein, while fishes more of protein feeds


FORMULATING THE FEED

There are many method of feed
formulation in the world, some of these are;

·
Computer based
soft ware feed formulator  

This is the newly developed
software use in the formulation of feed for different animal in the world

·
Ruler of thumb

·
Pearson square formula
 

PEARSON
SQUARE FORMULA

This is a universal formula
use in feed formulation.
The Pearson square ration formulation procedure is designed
for simple rations. In order for the square to work, follow specific directions
for its use. Nutrient contents of ingredients and nutrient requirements must be
expressed on the same basis (i.e., dry-matter or “as-fed”).
The Pearson square or box method of balancing rations is a
simple procedure that has been used for many years. It is of greatest value
when only two ingredients are to be mixed. In taking a close look at the
square, several numbers are in and around the square. Probably one of the more
important numbers is the number that appears in the middle of the square. This
number represents the nutritional requirement of an animal for a specific
nutrient. It may be crude protein or TDN, amino acids, minerals or vitamins.

In order to make the square work
consistently, there are three very important considerations: 

 

 

 

.
The value in the middle of the square must be intermediate
between the two values that are used on the left side of the square. For
example, the 14 percent crude protein requirement has to be intermediate
between the soybean meal that has 45 percent crude protein or the corn that has
10 percent crude protein. If barley is used that has 12 percent crude protein
and corn that has 10 percent crude protein, the square calculation method will
not work because the 14 percent is outside the range of the values on the left
side of the square.

2.
Disregard any negative numbers that are generated on the
right side of the square. Be concerned only with the numerical differences
between the nutrient requirement and the ingredient nutrient values.

3.
 Subtract the nutrient
value from the nutritional requirement on the diagonal and arrive at a
numerical value entitled parts. By summing those parts and dividing by the
total, you can determine the percent of the ration that each ingredient should
represent in order to provide a specific nutrient level. Always subtract on the
diagonal within the square in order to determine parts. Always double check
calculations to make sure that you did not have a mathematical error. It also
is very important to work on a uniform basis. Use a 100-percent dry-matter
basis for nutrient composition of ingredients and requirements and then convert
to an as-fed basis after the formulation is calculated.

With the rising cost of animal feeds, farmers rearing
animals are increasingly finding it difficult to make profit from their
livestock keeping. All because they find it difficult to formulate their own
feeds for their animals such as poultry birds, catfish, pigs, grass cutters and
so on. Using Pearson Square method, you can easily formulate one now. However,
this is only possible if farmers have the right quality of ingredients or raw
material for formulating feeds. The Pearson Square method relies on the
Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic nutritional requirement for feed.
The most common ingredients used are whole maize, maize germ, cotton seed cake,
soya beans, sunflower or omena (fishmeal).


Some tips on how to feed chicken

An egg-laying chicken requires 130 g of
feed per day (provide clean water at all times).

• 1 chick requires 2.2 kg of feed for 8
weeks (thus 100 chicks = 2.2 kg x 100=220 kg. Chicks should be allowed to feed
continuously and given adequate clean water at all times). If they finish their
daily rations, you can give the animals fruit and vegetables cuttings to increase
their level of vitamins, minerals and digestion in them.

• 1 pullet (young chicken about to
start laying) should be fed 4.5 kg of feed for two and a half months until the
first egg is seen. It should then be put on layer diet. Supplement with
vegetables, edible plant leaves or fruits peelings in addition to the daily
feed rations.

• All ingredients used must be of high
quality and palatable. Never use rotten maize (Maozo). Chickens are very
susceptible to aflatoxins poisoning.

• When using omena as an ingredient,
ensure it is free of sand and seashells. If

you use maize germ, it should be
completely dry.

• Feed should be thoroughly mixed to
ensure the ingredients are uniformly distributed. It is preferable to use a
drum mixer instead of a spade for mixing.

• Note that even after giving them the
formulated feeds, chickens should be put on free range to scavenge for other
micronutrients not provided for in the feeds.   

 

 19.5% CRUDE PROTEIN FEED FOR LAYERS FORMULATED

This is my own resultant on Pearson square formula for layers, using 19.5% crude protein for a 100kg bag.

Carbohydrate
(Energy)

Maize                                         58.66

Fiber

Wheat offal                                14.67

Protein

Soya bean cake                            9.23

Groundnut cake                           9.23

Blood meal                                  4.61

Minerals

Premix                                         0.10kg

Methionine                                   0.25kg

Salt                                              0.25kg

Calcium 

Bone meal                                    3kg   

Total                                      100kg bag of feed

 

For your feed formulation on any animal
OR
WANT’S TO BUY OR SALE YOUR FEED PRODUCTS

Contact Us Today, Let’s Help You Prepare An Irresistible Business Plan And A Feasibility Study Report

 

READ  Cocoa Business Plans / Feasibility Report / Project for loan/Grant/ Investment Guide

Do you need a business plan to raise fund for your business?

We can carry out research and develop MBA grade business plans that you can present to a bank or investor. Intuitively, Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.

READ  Top Business Plan And Feasibility Studies Writer For Any Business

For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit.

 

General Info On Feasibility Study And Business Plans

Intuitively, our feasibility study and business plans are explicit. Likewise, becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are to see. Especially, when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use.

READ  Feasibility Study For Fishery / Fish Pond / Fishery Farm Plan

More Info On Feasibility Study And Business Plans

Similarly, it shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output. Likewise, how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. Lastly, this will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. However, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.

 

CLICK HERE to see what our Business Plans and Feasibility Study Reports has for you.

Intuitively, Our Business Plans and Feasibility Study Report has a unique content. Take a look at our it. Finally, be rest assured that we give you what you want if you place and order. For easy understand of your idea, Call us or send us an email for your request. And you will be Glad you did.

Pay For Any Service Via Clicking PAYMENT On the Menu

Finally, Know more about Catfish Farming Business by ordering for this book for just Ten thousand Naira (N10,000.00)

PRICE TAG: N10, 000.00

Become A Guru In Catfish Production Ebook

Mobile Fish Ponds For Sale All Over Nigeria

Furthermore, Fish Collapsible Tarpaulin Ponds Tips is a Simple guide For All Fish Farmers. As a matter of fact, Chris farm Nigeria welcomes you on Fish Ponds or Collapsible Tarpaulin Ponds Section. This is where we talk about Modern Fish Farming. Join our Facebook Niche Here

 

Please wait...

Subscribe to our newsletter

Want to be notified when our article is published? Enter your email address and name below to be the first to know.
%d bloggers like this: