Catfishes of the family Claridae comprise the most
commonly cultivated fishes in Nigeria. The growth of aquaculture in Nigeria now
is largely being boosted by a steady rise in catfish culture. Since the culture
of Clarias gariepinus through hypophysation was initiated in Western Nigeria in
1973, the procedure has been widely practiced throughout Nigeria thus leading
to increase of farm-raised catfishes from the 80’s to date.


The favoured
catfish species in Nigeria aquaculture include: Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus
bidorsalis, Clarias X Heterobranchus hybrid (Heteroclarias) and Clarias nigrodigitatus.
Heterobranchus sp is the more commonly cultured fish in the South Eastern parts
of Nigeria.

LARVAL PRODUCTION : Despite the popularity of the
African catfish and its great market potentials, the production is still basically
at subsistence level  due majorly to inadequate
availability of seed for stocking and feed problems. In Europe, about 75% of
Clarias fingerling demands are supplied by a few producers. In Nigeria however,
the fingerlings supplied from both the government and privately owned
hatcheries are not enough to meet the catfish farmers’ fingerling demands.  Artificial propagation of C. gariepinus is
now carried out in hatcheries with hormonal induction. Farmers have found the
homoplastic pituitary gland suspension cheaper, practical and more highly
reliable than the imported synthetic hormonal analogues. The C. gariepinus
brood stock weight used for artificial breeding ranges between 0.3kg and 2kg
(Olaleye, 2005). Despite the breakthrough with use of hormone in induced
spawning; fry survival is still beset with a number of biotic and abiotic factors.
The biotic factors include cannibalism, heavy predation by frogs/aquatic
insects and the abiotic factors include water temperature, dissolved oxygen (>4.5mg/L-1),
levels of ammonia. During the first week after stocking, the most critical
factor for the successful nursing of the catfish larvae is the availability of zooplankton.
Feeds and feeding of the larvae fry and fingerlings of the catfishes have been
most studied and shown to influence the growth and survival of the fish.
Studies have revealed that live zooplankton is the preferred larval food. Many
smallholdings merely rear larvae to fingerling size in organically fertilized
ponds at a density of between 30-1000 larvae/ m2. Fingerlings are stocked into rearing
ponds at a rate of 50-75 fish/m3 under good management.

THE CULTURE SYSTEM: Because of the cannibalistic
nature of Clarias gariepinus, multiple sorting is essential. For outdoor fry/fingerlings
rearing, screening of the tanks with mosquito nets is recommended to prevent
dragonfly and other predatory insects from breeding in the ponds. Poly-culture
of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia species is practiced. A poly-culture of
Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus, integrated with poultry with some
supplementary feeding had been shown to be viable.
FEED AND FEEDING: Feed and feeding of catfishes in
grow outs ponds are perhaps the most documented in literature. Various efforts
have been made to establish the crude protein and amino acid requirement of C.
gariepinus. Ayinla (1988) recommended 35% and 40% crude protein (Cp) for
raising table size and brood stock respectively. Of the 10 essential amino
acids (EAA) required by warm water fish species, only 3 EAAs studied have been
documented and these are arginnie, methionine and lysine. In order to formulate
and compound aqua feeds that will meet the nutrient requirements of the catfish
at affordable cost, several conventional and non-conventional animal by-products
and plant residues have been tested to substitute or replace fishmeal.Feeding
development has moved from the use of single ingredient, broadcasting un- pelleted
meal to pelleting and in fact the use of pelleted floating feed which has made
a big difference to aquaculture development in Nigeria as C. gariepinus is
being raised to maturity within 6 months.
HYBRIDIZATION OF Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus
longifilis: The yearnings of farmers and scientists to have a farmed catfish
that combines the fast growth traits of Heterobranchus spp and early maturing
traits of C. gariepinus led to the development of a hybrid ‘Heteroclarias’ spp.
The technology was widely accepted as it gave 58% internal rate of return (IRR)
on investment.
CULTURE SYSTEM MODIFICATION: In the review of Oresegun
et al (2007), it was stated that early fish farmers in Nigeria raised their
fish in burrow pits, abandoned minefields and in earthen ponds on extensive production
system. The introduction of concrete tanks allows for manageable pond size and
modification of the environment through a water flow-through system and supplementary
feeding thus allowing for higher fish yield. The advent of the indoor water re-
circulatory system (WRS) has ushered in a new prospect for aquaculture. The
introduction of WRS has created a turning point in the production of catfish in
Nigeria.
httpp://www.chrisfarmnigeria.comPROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF CULTURE: The story of
aquaculture in Nigeria is essentially the story of catfish culture and the hope
of fish supply in Nigeria hangs on its development and culture. Recent trends
all over the world, point to a decline in landing from capture fisheries, an
indicator that fish stocks have approached or even exceeded the point of
maximum sustainable yield. Aquaculture therefore remains the only viable alternative
for increasing fish production in order to meet the protein need of the people.
It was observed that of the over 30,000MT of various freshwater and brackish water
fish species caught in the year 2000, catfishes were more abundant next to
Tilapia. (Table 2). FAO (1993) reported that 27,488MT of catfishes produced
in1990 were consumed locally. This implies that there is still great need for
higher production for both local and international markets. Interested in fish
farming manual, and start your fish farming business today, if yes is your
answer, why not place an order now by following the ordering instruction below.
Bestselling
book on fishery;
·        
How
to own, manage, and make millions from catfish farming business   
CONTENT                                                                                              pages
Title Page ……………………………………………………………………..1
 Table of Content……………………………………………………………2
Dedication ……………………………………………………….………….5
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………….…………5
Preface ……………………………………………………………………….6
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1          Catfish
……………………………………………….……………8
1.2          Why
is catfish different from other fishes? ……………………………..8
1.3          Fish
classification ………………………………..……………….9
1.4          Habitat………………………………………….……………….10
READ  Catfish:“How To Own, Manage, And Make Millions From Catfish Production"
1.5          Morphology
…………………………………..…………………10
Chapter Two:
2.0 Giant Catfish of the World……………………….….…………………17
2.1          Scientific
classification ……………………….………………….18
2.2          SPECIES
CHARACTERISTICS…………………………………18
Chapter Three:
3.0          Catfish Family……………………………………………………22
3.1         
Larval production …….……………………….…………………23
3.2          The culture system ………………………………………………..23
3.3          Feed and Feeding …………………………………………………23
3.4          Hybridization of catfish ……………………….………………….24
3.5          Culture system modification ………………….…………………..24
3.6          Prospect and problems of cultured fish ……………………………24   
Chapter Four:
4.0          How to own a Mega
fish farm Business…………………….…….26
Chapter Five:
5.0          Pond……………………………………………………………….29
5.1          standard features of a fish pond …………………..………………29
5.2          Types of pond ………………………………..……………………30
5.3          Earthen (Natural) Pond …………………..………………….…….30
5.4          Concrete Pond ………………………………………………………33
5.5          Tarpaulin/Plastic/ Mobile Pond …………………………………….34
5.6          Step in fish Pond establishment ………………..……………………35
5.7         
Important of liming ……………………….………..……………….36
5.8          Fertilizing a pond ……………………………………..……………37
5.9          Fish Pond management …………………………………..…………38
Chapter Six:
6.0  
        Fish
Stocking ……………………….…………………………….40
6.1Stocking of fish can take the
form of mono/poly-culture ………..……….40
Chapter Seven:
7.0          channel catfish
…………………………….…………………………41
7.1          Species
of channel catfish ……………………….………………..42
6.2          Life
cycle of channel catfish ………………….….………………..42.
Chapter Eight:
8.0          The Electric Catfish
…………………………………………………44
8.1          Feeding
in electric catfish ……………………………………….…44
8.2          Firing
in electric fish ……………………………………………….46
8.3          Importance
tips in managing electric catfish ………………………47
Chapter Nine:
9.0          African Giant
catfish ……………………………………………….49
9.1          Habits
of African catfish in the wide ……………………………….50
9.2          Natural
spawning in the wide ………………………………..…….50
9.3          Rearing
of African giant catfish ………………………………..…50
Chapter Ten:
10.0        Spawning ………………………………………………………….54
10.1        Hatching techniques in catfish ……………………….…………..55
10.2        materials needed for (hatching) spawning …………………….…55
10.3        Prerequisite for (Hatching) spawning in catfish …………….……55
10.4        Steps in (hatching) spawning ………………………………….…56
10.5        Some reasons why spawning (Hatching) falls …………….……..63
10.6        Characteristics of catfish stages ……………………………….…63
10.7        Transportation of catfish ………………………………………..…65
Chapter Eleven:
11.0        Fish Management ……………………………………………….…67
11.1        How to identify oxygen Depletion in ponds…….…………….……68  
11.2        Questions most people ask about catfish management …………….68
Chapter Twelve:
12.0        Fish parasite and Diseases
…………………………………………..75
12.1        Fish Disease ……………………………………………….……..…75
12.2        Causes of Diseases ………………………………………………….76
12.3        Types of Disease ……………………………………………………76
Chapter Three:
13.0        Fish preservation ……………………………………………………84
13.1        Method of fish preservation ………………………….………………84
13.2        Fish salting …………………………………………………….…….8.4
13.3        Drying and Dehydration ……………………………………………..86
13.4        Fish smoking ……………………………………………………..…87  
13.5        How to smoke fish ……………………………………………………88         
Chapter Fourteen:
14.0        How to make millions
from catfish production ………………….…..90
14.1        Advertising ………………………………………………..…………90
14.2        Marketing ………………………………………………………..….91
14.3        Marketing strategy ………………………………………………..….91
14.4        How to sustain millions in catfish business………………………..…93
List of figures
Fig.1.1   Labeled diagram of a typical tilapia fish ……………………………..……
12
Fig 1.2 labeled diagram of a typical
catfish ……………………………….….13
Fig 1.3 Labeled diagram of a
typical external anatomy of a tilapia fish ……..14
 Fig 1.4 Labeled diagram of a typical external
anatomy of a carpio cyprisnus.14 
Fig 1.5 Labeled diagram of a
typical internal anatomy of a tilapia fish…………14
Fig
1.6 Typical example of catfish ………………………………….…………15  
Fig 8.1 Diagram of electric catfish
organs …………………….……………….45
Fig 9.1 claries gariepinus sample
………………….…………………………..50 
Fig 9.2 Heterobranchus Bidorsal
Sample ……………….………………….….51
Fig 10.1 Diagram on how to inject
the catfish ………………………………….57
Fig 10.2 Diagram on how to extract
the milt (sperm) from catfish ………….….59
Fig 10/3 Diagram on how to strip
off eggs from catfish and to fertilize them …61
List of tables
Table 2.1 scientific classification
of catfish …………………….……….………19
Table 3.1 catfish families
………….……………………………………………22 
Table 5.1 table showing water
retention in soil …………..…….………………32
Table 8.1 scientific classification
of electric catfish ………………………..……44
Table 9.1 African Giant catfish ……………………………..………………..…49
PRICE: N 10,
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Do you need a business plan to raise fund for your business?
I can help you develop a unique business plan tailored to suit your needs.

Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit.
Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.
http://www.chrisfarmnigeria.com
OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;
SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS

SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)
  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS – PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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Feasibility study on piggery farming business Agbarho community, delta state 

A PREPARED FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR CATFISH FARM IN NIGERIA 

“How to own, manage, and make millions from catfish farmingbusiness” BEST SELLER  

HOW TO OWN A MEGA FISH FARM BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

FLOATING FISH FEED PELLET MACHINE

TIPS ON BROILERS PRODUCTION AND ACTUAL VACCINATION –PROGRAMME AND TREATMENT

TIPS IN POULTRY MANAGEMENT

Sales of battery cage system in Nigeria

CASSAVA PROCESSING MACHINE

GRASS CUTTER/ CANE RAT PRODUCTION, BEST SELLER

How to handle and manage Snail farming

Rabbit Management

MANAGEMENT OF RABBITS, BEST SELLER

·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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