Fish Cloning And Spawning Made Easy
Fish Cloning And Spawning Made Easy is a free guide. Intuitively, Fish Cloning And Catfish Hatching is a lucrative business. Most fish farmers specializes on hatching/spawning of fish. This makes lots of million when produced in large quantity. Similarly, opening a company for this business needs capital. Professional Business plan and a feasibility study writing is a must. This has the propensity to give you a Loan, grant or investor signups. Watch our videos tag; difference between a feasibility study and a business plan to get a clear understanding. Contact Us Today, Let’s Help You Prepare An Irresistible Business Plan And A Feasibility Study Report
Introduction To Fish Cloning And Spawning Made Easy
Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as fish, bacteria, and insects, and other animals including humans or plants reproduce asexually.
Similarly, cloning in Biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules, cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequence and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprint to large scale protein production.
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Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps;
Fragmentation: Breaking apart a strand of DNA.
Ligation: Gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence.
Transfect ion: Inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells.
Screening/ Selection: Selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA.
MATERIALS FOR FISH CLONING
METHOD OF FISH CLONING
Using Zebra fish as example; Zebra fish served as an excellent model for understanding normal development and birth defects. More recently, research with Zebra fish has extended to model human diseases and to analyze the formation and functions of cell populations with organs. The normal cloning
technique uses an unfertilized egg and a donor cell. The DNA is removed from the egg and replaced from the donor. The egg is then coaxed into dividing the resulting fish is an exact genetic copy of the donor.
Furthermore, Using Gibelli and colleges technique, the egg is gently removed from the female Zebra fish and placed in a solution of ovarian fluyid from a chinnok salmon. This worked well, because it kept the egg inactive for sometime in about two or three hours. Zebra fish was useful in the exercise because their eggs are transparent and the fish development is easy to follow.
Though reproductive cloning generally uses somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create organisms that are generally identical. Intuitively, this process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg from which the nucleus has been removed, or to a cell from a blast cyst. If the egg begins to divide normally, it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Additionally the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT, this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasm donor’s egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications split for cross species nuclear transfer in which nuclear mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death. Furthermore, artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning, a technique that creates monozygotic twins from a single embryo is not considered in the same fashion as other methods of cloning. During the procedure, a donor embryo is split in two distinct embryos that can then be transferred via embryo transfer. It is optimally performed at the 6 to 8 cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos. If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to monozygotic (identical) twins.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FISH CLONING
- The exercise produces new offspring that are genetically identical, they will all have the desired characteristics.
- Lastly, Organisms that are difficult or slow to breed normally reproduced quickly.
- Firstly, if a clone is susceptible to disease or changes in the environment, then all the clones will be susceptible.
- Secondly, it will lead to less variation, and less opportunity to create new varieties in future.
SIGNIFICANCE OF FISH CLONING IN BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Furthermore, molecular cloning allows scientists to not only discover what proteins are present and their function, but also explore what happens in a cell wall when these proteins are changed. When studying cell divisions, specifically, scientists look for proteins that control the beginning and end of division, even the replication within the cell, example; Histones.
By manipulating cells with cloning and learning more about specific proteins, scientists can take their research and apply it to large- sale research endeavors like diseases and pathogens.
Also, it is vital to note, however, the cloning is not used to study just proteins involved in the cell cycle. Molecular cloning has lead scientists to discover the entire genetic sequences of many different species, inactivate genes in both human and other organisms and create transgenic like herbicide resistant plants and glow- in- the dark fish. For instance, when tropical fish give off a slight glow because they have been marked with the same fluorescence that is native to some species of jellyfish.
Lastly, the biotechnology significance; the cloning of zebra fish by nuclear transfer from long- term cultured cells opens a new avenue for gene targeting in this important model organism.
- Textbook of somatic cell nuclear transfer- Embryo twinning. By; Hans Diriesh (1885), Article on cloning- Star Garden (April 2014).
- Article on MSU Researchers- Improve cloning method for zebra fish. By; Jose Cibelli and Tom Oswald (August 2009).
- Article on Nature methods. By; G L. Kohuth (Michigan state university- September 2009).
- Textbook on Heat shock genes and their functional significance in fish. By; A E. Todgham, P A. Ackerman, George K. Iwama (2002).
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