Palm Oil Plantation Business Plans And Feasibility (Get an irresistible one)
Palm Oil Plantation Business Plans And Feasibility (Get an irresistible one) is a free guide. This guide will expose you on how to make millions from palm oil production in view of other related searches in Palm oil production.
Palm Oil Plantation Business Plans And Feasibility (Get an irresistible one)
As a specialist, We will help you to develop an irresistible palm oil processing business plan or if you are a startup with small capital, we can also help you to write in your own capacity.
Types of Palm Oil Tress
There are three main varieties of the West African oil palm: Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera. The Tenera palm produces the highest oil content of the three, but is actually a hybrid between the Dura and Pisifera. Modern Tenera or variant hybrids are usually planted when establishing a plantation, due to the high oil yield.
Over 40% of an individual palm fruit, and over 20% of a fruit bunch from a typical Tenera palm can be extracted as palm oil. Tree densities as high as 300 trees per hectare have been reported. But it is generally agreed that approximately 150 trees per hectare is recommended. The trees typically start producing in the third year after transplanting from nursery stock. Likewise, reach peak production by perhaps the fifth year.
In Southeast Asia, where the extensive plantations are all descended from a small number of transplanted West African palms. Trees are generally cut down and replaced when they reach about twenty years old. However, it is not clear, if that is the best strategy for the local Nigerian climate and soil conditions.
Once trees reach maturity and produce fruit, 9,000-10,000 kg of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) per hectare (ha). This can be expected from a well-managed plantation. Assuming Tenera palms and good extraction efficiencies in the mill, this will yield approximately 2,000 liters of oil/year/ha. There are a number of technical details that still need to be worked out with respect to the plantation. These include identifying the appropriate use of fertilizers (if any). General tree care, and ground cover/management, possible mixing of other crops, pest control, harvesting methods and equipment, and transport of the harvested bunches. Our intention is to enlist the services of an expert in oil palm agronomy to settle the final details of the operation of the plantation.
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
The primary unit of production of the palm oil mill is the farm, where the oil palm tree is been cultivated to produce palm fruits, which is been harvested, processed, using milling machines to extract edible palm oil and kernel. These can undergo further processing into secondary productions like oil used in medicine and other pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. There are different species of palm fruit for this purpose. There are also wild groves of oil palm. The farm units are of different sizes and may be classified as small, medium, and large-scale estates. The wild groves, as the name implies, grow untended in the forest. They are found in clusters and are mainly the result of natural seed dispersal. Dura, the main variety found in the groves, for decades has been the source of palm oil – well before modern methods of oil palm cultivation were introduced to Africa in the second quarter of the 20th century. The other varieties are Pisifera and Tenera, which is a hybrid variety obtained by crossing Dura and Pisifera. The Dura has a large nut with a thick shell and thin mesocarp. The Pisifera is a small fruit with no shell. By crossing the Dura with Pisifera a fruit is obtained with a thick mesocarp containing much more oil and fat (chemically saturated oil) than either of its parents. The Tenera nut is small and is easily shelled to release the palm kernel. The Tenera palm kernel is smaller than the Dura kernel although the Tenera bunch is much larger than Dura. In all, the Tenera is a much better variety for industrial and economic purposes. Although, one may even say that the Tenera is becoming an old specie because, there is another specie called SUPER GENE OIL PALM, It’s presently all over Malaysia. It can even shoots around 15 palm fruit at a time and one can start harvesting in 2years time, after planting.
HARVESTING TECHNIQUE AND HANDLING EFFECTS
In the early stages of fruit formation, the oil content of the fruit is very low. As the fruit approaches maturity the formation of oil increases rapidly to about 50 percent of mesocarp weigh. In a fresh ripe, un-bruised fruit the free fatty acid (FFA) content of the oil is below 0.3 percent. However, in the ripe fruit the exocarp becomes soft and is more easily attacked by lipolytic enzymes, especially at the base when the fruit becomes detached from the bunch. The enzymatic attack results in an increase in the FFA of the oil through hydrolysis. Research has shown that if the fruit is bruised, the FFA in the damaged part of the fruit increases rapidly to 60 percent in an hour. There is therefore great variation in the composition and quality within the bunch, depending on how much the bunch has been bruised. Harvesting involves the cutting of the bunch from the tree and allowing it to fall to the ground by gravity. Fruits may be damaged in the process of pruning palm fronds to expose the bunch base to facilitate bunch cutting. As the bunch (weighing about 25 kg) falls to the ground the impact bruises the fruit. During loading and unloading of bunches into and out of transport containers there are further opportunities for the fruit to be bruised. Most bunches are conveyed to the processing site in baskets, either by carrying on the head, by truck and even by tractors. To dismount the load, the tendency is to dump contents of the basket onto the ground. This may results in more bruises. Sometimes trucks and push carts, are unable to set bunches down gently. Again, tumbling the fruit bunches from the carriers is rough, which may sometimes result in bruising of the soft exocarp. In any case the staffs of the mill should be trained to exercise care in handling the fruit to avoid excessive bruising. One major way to reduce infestation of bruises during harvesting, transportation and handling of bunches is to process the fruit as early as possible after harvest, say within 48 hours.
During process, the main point of clarification is to separate the oil from its entrained impurities. The fluid coming out of the press is a mixture of palm oil, water, cell debris, fibrous material and ‘non-oily solids’. Because of the non-oily solids the mixture is very thick (viscous). Hot water is therefore added to the press output mixture to aid the separation. The dilution (addition of water) provides a barrier causing the heavy solids to fall to the bottom of the container while the lighter oil droplets flow through the watery mixture to the top when heat is applied to break the emulsion (oil suspended in water with the aid of gums and resins). Hot water is added in a ratio of 3:1. The diluted mixture is passed through a screen to remove coarse fiber.
The screened mixture is boiled from one or two hours and then allowed to settle by gravity in the large tank, so that the palm oil which has a lighter density than water can be fully suspended on top of the mixture. The clear oil is decanted into a reception tank. This clarified oil still contains traces of water and dirt. To prevent increasing FFA through autocatalytic hydrolysis of the oil, the moisture content of the oil must be reduced to 0.15 to 0.25 percent.
Re-heating the decanted oil in a cooking pot and carefully skimming off the dried oil from any engrained dirt removes, in other to remove the remaining residual moisture. Continuous clarifiers consist of three compartments to treat the crude mixture, engage the dry decanted oil and hold finished oil in an outer shell as a heat exchanger.
IN SIMPLE WORDS – THIS IS THE PRODUCTION PROCESS
The following stages is involve in palm oil processing, using the old method;
- Furthermore, the first stage: the palm will be cut from the tree in a bunk.
- The second stage: cut it from the bunk and select.
- Also, the third stage: cook the selected fruit with a very big pot.
- The fourth stage: pound in a big mortar.
- Similarly, the fifth stage: sieve out the oil and turn into a container.
- Lastly, the sixth stage: package the container and the oil is ready for sale.
After this process, the kernels and the chaff will be separated from others for domestic uses and consumption.
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