CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING

CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING

Catfish And Catfish Farming is a free guide for all. Intuitively, Catfish And Catfish Farming is two different things. Knowing catfish is different from catfish farming. Furthermore, there millions of catfish spies. Clarias gariepinus or African sharptooth catfish is a species of catfish of the family Clariidae. The air breathing catfishes. The African catfish was introduced all over the world in the early 1980s for aquaculture purposes. So is found in countries far outside its natural habitat, such as Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, and India.


CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING

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Although more than 100 different species of the Genus Clarias have been described in Africa. A recent systematic revision based on morphological, anatomical and biographical studies has been carried out by Teugels (1982a, 1982b, 1984). who recognized 32 valid species. The large African species which are of interest for aquaculture belong to the subgenus Clarias. In earlier systematic studies on the large African catfish species. Boulenger (1911) as well as David (1935) recognized five species within this subgenus. Both authors used morphological criteria such as form of vomerine teeth, ratio of vomerine to premaxillary teeth band and the number of gill rakers. The five species were:

  • Firstly, Clarias anguillarus 

  • Secondly, Clarias senegalensis 

  • Thirdly, Clarias lazera 

  • Fourthly, Clarias mossambicus 

  • Finally, Clarias gariepinus 


In 1982 Teugels revised the subgenus Clarias and found only two species (C. gariepinus and C. anguillaris) if the number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch was considered; for C. anguillaris the number of gill rakers was rather low (14 to 40) while for C. gariepinus relatively high (20 to 100, Figure 1)

Natural geographical distribution – Clarias gariepinus, which is generally considered to be one of the most important tropical catfish species for aquaculture, has an almost Pan-African distribution, ranging from the Nile to West Africa and from Algeria to Southern. By contrast, Clarias anguillaris has a more restricted distribution and is found in Mauritania, in most West African basins and in the Nile (Figure 2). In general C. gariepinus lives in most river basins sympatrically with C. anguillaris. – C. gariepinus has an average adult length of 1–1.5 m (3 feet 3 inches–4 feet 11 inches). It reaches a maximum length of 1.7 m (5 feet 7 inches) Total Lenght and can weigh up to 60 kg (130 lb). These fish have slender bodies, flat bony heads, notably flatter than in the genus Silurus, and broad, terminal mouths with four pairs of barbels. They also have large accessory breathing organs composed of modified gillarches. Also, only the pectoral fins have spines.

Nigeria fishery statistics – 2016 Summary report – The total fish demand for Nigeria based on the 2014 population estimate of 180m was 3.32m Mt. The domestic fish production from Aquaculture, Artisanal and Industrial fisheries for 2014 was 1.123m Mt. Also in 2014, fisheries contributed 0.48% to the Agriculture GDP and contribution of Agriculture to GDP (2014) was 20.24%. – In 2012, the total Fish production via Aquaculture was estimated at 254,000 metric tons at a total worth of N22 Billion – Common cultured fish species are majorly Catfish and Tilapia – Some of the potential Investments opportunities in the Aquaculture industry varies from Hatchery Production, Brood Stock Production, Ornamental Fish Production, Shrimps Production, Tilapia Fish Production, Movable Cages Production, Processing Plants, Fishmeal, e.t.c.

Earthen Pond Designs and Layouts

Essential Factors to be considered when siting an Earthen Pond Farm are;

1.Soil Profile

2.Soil water table Profile and water retention ability

3.Topography

4.Accessible to adjourning road networks

5.Presence of natural source of water such as Lake, Stream, River, Dam, Swamps

It is of importance that an earthen pond should be well mobilized to withstand flash floods and over-flows

Essential Management Practice

Lime Ponds to neutralize the pH of the soil as well as destroy to unwanted organism
Fertilize Ponds using organic or inorganic fertilizers. This is to stimulate the growth of algae as well as precondition the Ponds to receive living organism (Fingerlings)

Use of Harpers for the first 4 weeks of stocking

  1. Grading or sorting of fish into uniform grades/sizes at least 2 times before they reach 2 months

  2. Replenishing or complete change of ponds water twice or at least once in a month

  3. It is of advantage to use oxygen bubbles, aerator or improvised with flow-thru system so as to improve the re-oxygenation of the Pond water

  4. Cover sides and top of each pond to protect against predator birds and reptiles

  5. Discourage feeding late into the night. This often predisposed fish to stress arising from competition for available oxygen at night (Anaerobic respiration by Algae in the pond water)

  • FIXED ASSETS

-Cost of Digging Ponds (15mx10mx1m)at =N=100,000 per Pond by
5 units 2,000 Tons capacity: =N=500,000

-Farm accessories and Equipment (Water Pumps, Drag Nets,
Sorting Bowl, weighing scale etc) ……………… =N= 120,000

-Lease deductible on land (@ 1,2000,000/40 Years)
…………………………………………………………………………. =N= 30,000

-Pond mobilization and Pipe works
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. =N= 100,000

-Total Fixed Cost …………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………….. =N= 750,000

-Depreciation on Fixed cost (less lease on land) over 6
Years …………………………………………………………. =N=120,000

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