Pond for Catfish Cultural System and Management / Business Plans

Pond For Catfish Cultural System and Management /Business Plans

Pond Catfish Cultural System and Management / Business Plans is a free information Guide on Catfish Farming.  As a matter of facts, consult us today for Free. Furthermore, we are professional when it comes to Business plans and feasibility Study. Look through our table of content below to see what you get when we write for you. Are you going for a grant, Loan, Pitch for investors? Let’s do the job for you. Take out time and peruse through this free guide on Catfish Cultural System and Management. Even if you are a farm, is going to add a plus to you.
Pond for Catfish Cultural System and Management / Business Plans

Pond for Catfish Cultural System and Management / Business Plans Opportunities In Fish Farming

  • Firstly, Breeding of fingerling and juveniles.
  • Secondly, Production of table sized fish.
  • Brood stock production
  • Processing and Packaging of fish for local and export market
  • Fish feed production, importation and feed additives blending.
  • Sale of aquaculture equipment’s (hormones nets, water test kits etc)

Quick Fish Farming Cultural System For Startups

Fish farming is the CONTROLLED rearing of aquatic organisms (these includes fin, shell fish and aquatic plants in an artificial environment called PONDS. It requires direct intervention in the target organism’s production. Control exercised includes:

  • Firstly, Also, Pond system/design
  • Secondly, Secondly, Secondly, Specie selection
  • Stocking density
  • Feeding regime
  • Water quality management
  • Disease control/treatment
  • Lastly, Marketing/sales

 FORMS OF FISH SUPPLY

Fish supply come from principally from four different sources viz:

  • Firstly, Industrial/trawl fisheries
  • Secondly, Artisanal fisheries
  • Imported fish
  • Lastly, Fish farming

 ADVANTAGES OF FISH FARMING OVER OTHER FORMS OF FISH SUPPLY

  • It allows for sustainable fish production
  • Secondly, Fish growth in ponds can be monitored/
  • Similarly, only desired species of fish are cultured.
  • Finally, it is environmentally friendly as such can relocated in residential areas.

 

  • FISH CULTURE SYSTEMS
  • EXTENSIVE

The Fishes stock forage on their own. This Farming system takes place in lakes, dams and large earthen ponds

 

SEMI INTENSIVE:

Limited control is exercised e.g. stocking and periodic changing of water, feed is usually a combination of formulated feeds and feed substitutes.

INTENSIVE SYSTEM:

Under this system the entire production system is automated with water exchange between ponds and filters going on continually, feeding is intensive and usually formulated or extruded feeds.

TYPES OF PONDS

  • Firstly, Earthen Ponds
  • Secondly, Concrete Ponds
  • Thirdly, Mobile Fish Pond Systems
  • Lastly, Cage And Pen Culture Systems

EARTHEN PONDS

Intuitively, Earthen pond system is the oldest form of fish culture system in Nigeria. The system involves the development of ponds in land. Likewise, close proximity to a water body or along the course of a gentle flowing stream or spring or the excavation. (creation of a cavity or void) of a marked portion of land where water level is close to the ground surface. Stocking density is between 10 and 40 juveniles/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF EARTHEN PONDS

  • Firstly, Cheaper construction costs.
  • Secondly, Lower fish production costs.
  • Thirdly, Does not rely on electricity.
  • Less skilled people are required to manage it.
  • Also, Depends on natural productivity (feed requirement is low).
  • Lastly, Risk of disease outbreak is very low

DISADVANTAGES OF EARTHEN PONDS

  • Firstly, Low stocking density
  • Secondly, Sorting of fish is very difficult thus predisposing the stock to cannibalism, especially when culturing catfish.
  • Thirdly, Low recovery rate unless advanced juveniles are stocked.
  • Also, Fish are more prone to predation/poaching.
  • Low sales price as farm is located in rural areas
  • Finally, Vulnerable to environmental pollution and other hazards.

CONCRETE PONDS

Concrete ponds are made of both vibrated hollow blocks filled with concrete mix or with re-enforced concrete slabs. Similarly, it can be of varying sizes and shapes. This production system is common in urban cities. Particularly where land is not available or suitable for earthen pond construction. In this system; water flows through the pond to refresh it and allowed to run into the drains or suitable soak-away.
  • Firstly, This system is practicable where water is readily available in right quality and quantity.
  • Similarly, it is easier to manage, affordable, productive and sustainable.
  • In this system water is allowed to flow through the pond to refresh it and instead of passing it back to the ponds it is allowed to run into the drains.
  • Lastly, stocking density is between 90 and 100/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Intuitively, easy monitoring
  • Furthermore, Operation is simple
  • Sorting is easy
  • Also, 100 fish per sqm
  • High output/ regular sales
  • Control of predation is possible
  • Finally, Much better farm security

FEATURES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Furthermore,  this system is practicable where water is readily available in right quality and quantity.
  • Similarly, it is easier to manage, affordable, productive and sustainable.
  • In this system water is allowed to flow through the pond to refresh it and instead of passing it back to the ponds it is allowed to run into the drains.
  • Lastly, stocking density is between 90 and 100/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Firstly, Easy monitoring
  • Operation is simple
  • Similarly, Sorting is easy
  • 100 fish per sqm
  • Likewise, High output/ regular sales
  • Furthermore, Control of predation is possible
  • Lastly, Much better farm security

DISADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • High volume of water is required to effectively run this system.
  • Finally, availability of a drainage system or soak away system is compulsory.

INTENSIVE OR RE-CIRCULATORY AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

Re-circulating water systems are designed to minimize or reduce dependence on water exchange and flushing in fish culture units.

These systems have practical applications in commercial Production systems hatcheries, holding tanks, and aquaria systems, as well as small-scale aquaculture projects.

Water is typically re-circulated when there is a specific need to:

1.      Firstly, Minimize water replacement.

2.      Maintain water quality conditions, which differ from the supply water.

3.     Lastly, Compensate for an insufficient water supply. This system helps to achieve the following

  1. Firstly, Aeration.
  2. Secondly, Removal of particulate matter.
  3. Biological filtration to remove ammonia and nitrite.
  4. Lastly, Buffering of pH.

The features of this system are:

  • Firstly, Fish tanks

  • Secondly, Sedimentation tanks

  • Thirdly, Chemical and biological filter tower.

FISH TANKS IN A RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM

ADVANTAGES OF THE RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • Firstly, 350 fish per sqm
  • Likewise, It maximizes land usage.
  • It maximizes water usage.
  • Also, It’s less dependent on constant availability of water.
  • High degrees of management control
  • Products command better pricing as farm is usually locate in  developed areas
  • Lastly, Fishes attain bigger sizes as all the parameters for good growth are optimized

DISADVANTAGES OF THE RE–CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • Intuitively, Capital intensive.
  • Continuous electric power supply is required.
  • System break down may lead to high casualty.
  • Likewise, It’s complex nature requires skilled personnel to manage.
  • Finally, High quality feed required

MOBILE FISH POND SYSTEMS

Farmers interested in fish farming and do not have land, or live in rented apartments can use this system for fish culture. The system is made of wood or Plastics.

Collapsible Mobile Fish Pond For Sale In Nigeria (TARPAULIN MOBILE FISH POND)

Advantages of mobile systems

  • Firstly, It can be dismantled and transferred to another location
  • Secondly, Low construction/installation cost
  • Thirdly, Monitoring is easy.
  • Poaching is reduced as the system is mounted in owners residence
  • Lastly, Lower maintenance cost

Disadvantages of mobile systems

  • Intuitively, Not as durable as the earlier mentioned systems
  • Similarly, Lower returns as few number of fish is stocked
  • Fish stocked close to the owner may end up being consumed by owner or for entertainments.
  • Neighbors could unnecessarily get jealous especially where the owner does not have exclusive use of the space the systems are installed.

CAGE AND PEN CULTURE SYSTEM

This is a relatively new method of fish production, though something close to it is being practised by the artisanal fishermen (a method
called “ACADJA”). Cage and pen systems are located in natural water bodies like streams, rivers and lagoon networks.
PEN – A pen is a shallow water enclosure for the rearing of fish in open water body the pen sits on the floor of the water body.
CAGE – A Cage on the other hand is also a net enclosure similar to pens but usually suspended in a water body anchored on the natural water bed and kept buoyant by floats for the purpose of fish culture.

Advantages of the cage and pen culture systems

  • Firstly, It doe not depend on electricity as cages and pens are water based systems
  • Also, High stocking density
  • Natural live foods are readily available for the cultured fish in addition to artificial feed.

Disadvantages of the cage and pen culture systems

  • Firstly, Fish are more prone to poaching; serious community policing is required.
  • Vulnerable to environmental pollution and other hazards. Conflicts in the use of water ways may arise

POND CONSTRUCTION

The first stage in pond construction is site selection, a relationship exist between the cost of pond construction and the nature of the selected site.

FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SITE SELECTION

Firstly, Suitable Topography

Intuitively, Suitable topography should be generally flat as land with steep topography will require earth cutting which will increase cost of construction.

SUITABLE SOIL PROFILE

Clay soil is suitable for the construction of concrete ponds as soil with loose soil profile will require more reinforcements to stabilize ponds and this also affects the cost of construction.

ADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY

The success of aquaculture projects depends on the supply of water in the right quantity and quality. Geo-physical survey should be conducted to determine the availability of water. Site with low water yield should be avoided. The concrete pond can vary in shape and sizes depending on resources and available land space. However it should not be smaller than 2MX3M and not larger than 8MX4M for ease of management. A dept of between 1.2M and 1.5M is desirable to provide suitable depth and cool water for the fish. Materials required for a concrete fish pond includes cement, granite, sharp sand, iron rods and plumbing materials

CONSTRUCTION OF “FLOW THROUGH” POND SYSTEM

It could be completely or partially buried in the soil or a surface pond depending on the drainage pattern to be employed.

  • Firstly, Dig the foundation according to specification and then the footing.
  • Secondly, Lay one or two couches of block
  • Thirdly, Lay the pipes
  • Fourthly, Do the flooring
  • Set other blocks (about 5 course is ideal) and set iron reds on every 2 course of  block
  •  Also, Fill block holes with concrete, fill two courses at once.
  • Reinforce with iron pillars at a space of 1m apart
  • Likewise, Plaster the pond inside in a double wall pattern (use 1 bag of water proof cement to a bag of cement)
  • Furthermore, Plaster outside
  • About 1.2m is ideal for pond height.
  • Also, Net the pond on top to prevent predation
  • If your location is prone to flood, construct a complete reinforce concrete pond, not the one with blocks.

CONSTRUCTION OF RECIRCULATORY POND SYSTEM

Same as above plus some extra features basically:

1. Sedimentation Chamber – made of net or imported poly fiber or gravel and fine sand

2. Biofilter – May contain plastics, polyfibres, empty crates, larva stones, oyster shell, etc

3. Lastly, Aeration chamber

PREPARATION OF CONCRETE POND FOR STOCKING

1.    Firstly,  Flush the pond after washing

2.     Fill with water

3.     Also, Acidify the pond with dry grass

4.    Likewise,  Leave for 2 weeks

5.     Drain the water, wash the pond and refill with water for another one week

6.    Furthermore,  Drain and fill the third time.

7.     Fertilize using either organic or inorganic fertilizer

8.     Finally, Pond is now ready for use when water turns light green in color

PREPARATION OF OLD EARTHEN POND

1.     Slash the pond embankment

2.     Desilt if need be

3.     Also, Liming depending on the pond pH.

4.     Fertilize using inorganic or organic fertilizer

5.    Finally,  Pond ready for stocking when water turns light green in colour

PREPARATION OF NEW EARTHEN POND

1.     Firstly, Spreading of top soil or organic fertilizer

2.     Secondly, Lime

3.     Thirdly, Fertilize

4.     Pond ready for stocking when water turns light green in colour

MANAGEMENT OF EARTHEN POND

1.     Maintain a clean environment

2.     Also, Fence against predators

3.     Stock juvenile fish to ensure high survival rate

4.    Lastly,  Practice spot feeding For more Catfish info, sales and consultancy, Contact us

MANAGEMENT

  • Intuitively, Management can be reactive or proactive
  • Proactive infers that likely problems are taken care of to fore stall the event happening.
  • Lastly, Reactive style infers that the event actually occurs before remedial action is taken.
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FARM MANAGEMENT

1.      System management

2.      Personnel management

3.      Production management

SYSTEM MANAGEMENT EARTHEN PONDS

1.      Firstly, Engage professionals to design and construct ponds.

2.      Recruit trained hands to work on farm.

3.      Similarly, Motivate your Staff (good salary/incentives).

4.      Also, Send your staff for training or organise in-plant training for them.

5.      If they live on farm provide basic conveniences for them.

6.      Lastly, Allow them time off from the farm

FISH FARM MANAGEMENT

Note the definitions of the following

FIRSTLY, FISH FARM:- A collection of two or more fish ponds in the same location under same ownership.

SECONDLY, FISH POND:- An enclosure in which fish is cultured.

Furthermore, Fish farm management involves the duties that are necessary for the successful operation of fish farms in a cost-effective manner. Lastly, Fish farm management can be viewed from four perspectives namely:

(1) Firstly, Infrastructure / pond management

(2) Also, Fish Management

(3) Personnel Management and

(4) Lastly, Financial Budgeting.

A.       FISH FARM INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE

  • Infrastructures such as earthen pond(s) and block wall fish tanks must be maintained to reduce high level of depreciation that can lead to water loss or fish losses.
  • Generally, the maintenance of earthen (dug-out) fish ponds are as follows;
  • Likewise, General vegetation cleaning (Weekly)
  • Repairs of eroded dam slopes and crests
  • Also, Re-grassing of eroded dams/dykes
  • Checking and repairs of monks, pipes and outfalls
  • Plugging of monkboards with clay or cloth stuffing.
  • Likewise, Repairs of wire and bamboo fencing to deter predators
  • Lastly, Manual raking of aquatic weeds and scum regularly.

B.        PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF PREDATORS

Dug-out Ponds

Ponds should be neutralized with Agricultural lime at the rate of 2000kg/ha or quicklime at the rate of 900 – 1120kg/ha.

  • Firstly, the inlet and outlet water bearer structures should be properly screened.
  • Fenced Fish ponds with old nets or wire netting.
  • set Bait or traps for predators.
  • Shooting is advisable to scare/eliminate predators.
  • Lastly, Setting up of scare-crow structures to deter some predators is advisable.

FISH TANKS

  • Firstly, fix of damaged outlet pipes or control valves v Repair of top covering spread nets.

  • Secondly, Repair of screens/partitions

  • Removal of scum on the surface of the tank’s pond water.

  • Repair of leakage around pipes/block wall joints.

  • Lastly, Repair of inlet pipe works/shower spray systems.

PREDATOR REDUCTION

Cover with netting for block wall fish tanks. Provide wire fencing with bamboo pole support for dug outs

C.        WATER MANAGEMENT

Water is a vital source for fish life. It is the medium in which the fish lives. Therefore the growth of any fish is directly related to the pond water medium, the feeding, and the genetic potential of the fish.

SOURCES OF WATER FOR FISH FARMING:

Rivers, springs, swamps, Lagoon, borehole, dug wells etc.

DISTRIBUTION

Water for aquaculture purposes can be distributed mainly through drains, pipes, and gate valves as inlets. The pipes are made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) of various sizes and connected to ponds, tanks etc.

CIRCULATION

Further distribution of water into any of the above-stated fish enclosure systems could be through small pipes of diameter ranging from 1.62cm – 1.905cm.

FLUSHING

Outlet pipes known as flush – through outlets are inserted in any of the fish enclosure systems for easy drainage of effluent wastes during culture. Rearing systems may be flushed out 3 – 4 times in a week especially in fish tanks to reduce sedimentation of particles known as slurry.

D.        WATER QUALITY

Water quality includes all the physical, chemical and biological factors that influence the beneficial use of water.

CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER FOR AQUACULTURE

i. Should be fairly green in colour reflecting the presence of plankton.

ii. Intuitively, it must neither be too acidic nor alkaline. Best pH mrange of fish production is between 6.5 – 8.5.

iii. Must contain enough dissolved oxygen of at least 5mg / litre.

iv. Likewise, must not be too turbid. The palm should be seen (visible) at 25-50cm water level when dipped into the pond water.

v. Furthermore, Must not have offensive odour, colour, surface foaming or scumming.

vi. Must be free of pollutants such as oil, chemicals, detergents, heavy metals (Zinc, Mg, Al etc).

vii. Water temperature range should be between 2506c – 320c.

E. WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

PARAMETERS

OPTIMAL RANGES

MEANS TO DETERMINE

Temperature (T0)

25 – 320c

Mercury Thermometer

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

5mg / litre

Titration / Oxygen meter

PH

6.5 – 8.5

Litmus paper or PH
meter

Carbon dioxide CO2

Not more than 5mg/litre

Titration or Meter

Ammonia (NH3)

Not more than

0.05mg/litre

Titration, test kit.

Nitrite (NO2)

Not more than

0.30mg/litre

Titration, test kits.

Nitrate (NO3)

Not more than 50mg/litre

Titration, test kits.

It is advisable that a farmer equips himself with water testing kits.

TRANSPARENCY

Transparency: is the degree to which one can see through the water colour. Can be measured locally by using the arm or an instrument called the seechi disc. Transparency of 25 – 50 cm reading is recommended.

LIMING AND FERTILIZATION

Liming conditions the soil and is part of the maintenance for ponds. It has a favourable action on the health of the fish, on one hand and on the biological factors of production on the other. Lastly, Lime also destroys harmful insects in the water medium.

F.        WHEN DOES A POND NEED LIME?

  • Firstly, when PH is acidic i.e. too low
  • Likewise, when organic matter content is too high and there is danger of lack of oxygen. However, one has to investigate the pond bottom. This is achieved by sampling the pond bottom.

TYPES OF LIMING MATERIALS

(1) Agricultural lime CaC03.

(2) Also, Quicklime Ca 0

(3) Hydrated Lime Ca(OH)2 (4) Basic slag.

Before using lime proper analysis should be carried out on the pond bottom whether it is actually necessary.

HOW TO APPLY LIME

There are three different methods. These include:

  • Firstly, Liming the pond water
  • Secondly, Liming the water flowing into the pond.
  • Lastly, Liming the pond bottom of a dried pond.

 

DOSAGES OF LIME TO APPLY

  • 2000 – 5000kg / ha (Agricultural Lime)
  • 750– 1300 kg/ha (Hydrated Lime)
  • 900 – 1120kg/ha (Quicklime).

The lime should be broadcast into water.

G.        POND FERTILIZATION

This is to improve the natural productivity of a pond. It is achieved by improving the quantity and quality of natural producers in the pond i.e. planktonic algae and zooplankton.

ADVANTAGES OF FERTILIZATION

Firstly, Improves the growth of fish which feed on the invertebrate

Secondly, Fertilization clears muddy pond by precipitating suspended oil colloids

Fertilization stimulates the growth of microscopic water plants.

Lastly, Fertilization promotes the growth of small aquatic invertebrates (Zooplankton) that serve a
food for fish.

TYPES OF FERTILIZERS

There are two types of fertilizer:
Inorganic and Organic. The inorganic fertilizers are chemical in nature while organic manure are mainly of animal dung.

 

H. Organic fertilizer is cheap and readily available. The inorganic fertilizer is more effective but costlier and may be scarce.

Inorganic fertilizer can be divided into two;

i. Complete fertilizer

ii. Incomplete fertilizer

Complete fertilizer contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium monoxide. Incomplete fertilizer contain only one or two of these elements. Examples of complete fertilizers are NPK 13-13-13 and NPK 20-20-14 while incomplete fertilizers are single super phosphate N (O), P (20), K (O), Triple super phosphate N (O), P (46), (K (O). However the most commonly used inorganic fertilizer is phosphate fertilizers because most ponds lack phosphorus.

APPLICATION RATES OF ORGANIC MANURE

These can be applied in tied polypropylene bags or pegged bamboo enclosures for release into the pond medium.

  • 500 – 1000kg/ha (cow dung)
  • 500 – 2000kg/ha (Pig dung)
  •  700 – 750kg/ha (poultry manure)

 

APPLICATION RATES OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER

NPK fertilizers are applied at the rate of 225-230kg/ha.

 

CULTIVABLE FISH SPECIES

Fish lives in water with stream lined body and fins for swimming. It lives in different types of water bodies and therefore subject of varying adaptations. Fishes are therefore adapted to their different living places or biotopes.

AQUATIC BIOTOPES (LIVING PLACES) & FISHES

 

BIOTOPES
ENVIRONMENT MAJOR FISH SPECIES
Marine Saltwater Sharks, Rays, Croakers,
Bonga fish etc.
Estuarine Brackish water Catfishes, Tilapias,
Chrysichthys etc.
Riverine Fresh water Mud fishes, Trunk fishes,
Bony tongues etc.

CULTIVABLE FISHES OF NIGERIA’S AQUACULTURE

The major cultivable fishes of Nigeria’s Aquaculture
practices include;

Catfishes such as Clarias Mud catfish (Aro, Aso), Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Heterobranchus longifilis Mud catfish (Abori), Oreochromis niloticus (Epia), Gymnarchus niloticus (Eja Osan), Heterotis niloticus (Aika), Cyprinus Carpio (Common Carp), Channa Obscura (Snake head) etc.

Attributes expected of a culturable fish species are as follows;

(1) Rapid growth performance: A culturable fish must show rapid growth performance qualities such that within a short culture period it can grow from fingerlings or juveniles to table-size Adult, e.g. Clarias gariepinus that has a culturable period of 5 – 6 months.

 

FEED RESPONSIVENESS

A culturable fish must be responsive to formulated and compounded feed rations/diets offered regularly within the fish culture period such that a reasonable fish feed conversion ratio is observable.

LOW MORTALITY

A culturable fish must have low mortality rate from the period of being stocked as fingerlings / juveniles till the harvest period.

CULTURAL ACCEPTABILITY

A culturable fish must have high cultural acceptability such that it is valuable food fish among the populace. E.g. Gymnarchus niloticus (Trunk fish) preferred as wedding / engagement present in parts of South West Nigeria.

CONSUMER PREFERENCE

A culturable fish must be high on the preference category of fish consumers such that it can always be sold as food fish e.g. Clarias gariepinus (Aso).

ARTIFICIALLY PROPAGATABLE

A cultivable fish must be convenient for artificial propagation or breeding such that its fingerlings / juveniles can be readily made available for stocking fish ponds in fish farming e.g. Clarias

ECONOMIC VIABILITY

Furthermore, a culturable fish must be economically viable for use as stocking material for fish farming. The Return on Investment on the stocking of the fish should be sufficiently high to sustain the interest of active farmers e.g. Clarias gariepinus. The most well known cultural practice by the farmers is MONOCULTURE of Catfish (Clarias sp). Monoculture implies culture of a single species of fish e.g. Clarias Culture, Tilapia Culture. Polyculture: implies culture of many species or more than one species in the same body of water. Under this system, fish species that live in different ecological niches and have different food habits such as; Surface dwelling (Tilapia), mid-water dwelling (Heterotis) and bottom dwelling (Clarias and Carp) can be grown together for increased yield.

FEEDING

The farmer must use well formulated and compounded feeds. Likewise, Feedstuffs used in the formulation and compounding of fish feeds must contain all essential nutrients (Proteins, CHO2, Fats/Oils, Vitamins, Mineral Salts, Premixes etc). Species of fish must be fed with feed containing appropriate crude protein content. Appropriate size of feed must be given to fish. Small fish require small pellet size of feed to enable them digest and assimilate. Feeds and feedstuffs contain energy and nutrients essential for the growth, reproduction and health of aquatic organisms. Deficiencies or excesses can reduce growth or lead to diseases. To make money in aquaculture, transforming feed to flesh must be done efficiently and economically.

STOCK MANAGEMENT ISSUES

  1. Firstly, Stock healthy fish fingerlings / juveniles. Fingerlings of 5 – 7cm (211 – 311) and juveniles of 7 – 10cm 311 – 411 are most advisable.

  2. Secondly, Stocking of fish must be carried out early mornings or late evenings when weather will be moderately cool.

  3. Avoid under-stocking and over-stocking of your fish enclosures to maximize space and feed to be administered.

  4. Fish stocked must not be fed immediately they are introduced to allow them to acclimatize to the new environment and must be done slowly to avoid shock due to temperature changes.

  5. Stocked fish must be fed with the appropriate size, quality and quantity.

  6. Avoid overfeeding and under feeding.

  7. Also, Stocked fingerlings must be sorted after 14 days (2 weeks) of initial stocking to remove shooters in order to reduce cannibalism and ensure even growth of fish.

  8. Sort in the morning or evening is perfect

  9. Sorted fish should not be fed for 2 hours minimum or 3 hours maximum. This will help to relieve the fish of handling stress and regain lost energy.

  10. Lastly, Stocking densities should range between 10 – 200 fingerlings / juveniles depending on the culture system and experience of the farmer.

TEST CROPPING AND CROPPING

Test Cropping: Test Cropping or trial cropping allows for the preview of fish to be harvested for sale. This gives opportunity for assessing the readiness of the fish under culture for sale or market.

Cropping:
Cropping or total harvesting is the total removal of fish from the pond waters once they are adjudged ready for the market. Fish must be harvested at the right time to command consumer acceptability and appropriate price that will bring reasonable returns. During harvesting, the fish must be handled with care to avoid them being stressed, bruised or injured, leading to their death. Live
fish such as Clarias commands higher price and acceptability than the dead ones.

DAILY FISH CULTURE MANAGEMENT SCHEDULE

  1. Firstly, Visit fish tank site early morning (7- 8a.m), mid day (12 – 1p.m) and night (6 – 7p.m).

  2. Secondly, Observe fish movement for stress monitoring.

  3. Thirdly, Feed with appropriate feed at least 3 times daily at 4 – 5 hours interval when they are young and can be reduced to twice daily when they have grown.

  4. Also, Feed at designated feeding spots.

  5. Likewise, Increase feed size particles as fish grows

  6. Allow fresh water daily into the fish tank if the enclosure is flow-through, by ensuring partial drainage through flushing (at least 10%) and topping of pond water.

  7. Sort out shooters from the stocked fish every fortnight for 2 months to reduce cannibalism and assure even growth of fish.

  8. Lastly, monthly sampling is a must to change or increase feed quantity corresponding to fish weight. It also helps to know if fish are healthy or diseased.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

The success of any business enterprise is dependent on the human resources available amongst many. These are critical due to the significant influence they exert on productivity of the farm. People are required to make operational decisions, management of the ponds/hatchery and operate machines etc. Management of human resources on the farm is therefore a very important business function. A farm must have the right number of skilled and qualified personnel who must be managed in such a way that they will be able to achieve the organizational objectives.

Futrthermore, the farmer must ensure that farm manager, supervisors etc have definite roles, and clear cut targets. Targets must be set at the beginning of the culture period. Rewards / penalties must be put in place for success or failure. Training must be organized for workers to improve efficiency and reduce wastages. Salary should be in line with what obtains in similar industry and opportunity given to employees to benefit from profits accruing to the organization.

FINANCIAL PLANNING

The farmer must have adequate financial plans in place to enable continuous production. It is very important to take into account all costs necessary for production. Such costs include feeding, fingerlings purchase, medications, fueling for generators and vehicles, electricity, staff salaries etc.

FISH HEALTH MANAGEMENT

Fish health management is a term used in Aquaculture to describe coordination of practices which are designed to
prevent fish disease. Prevention of fish disease is accomplished through the stocking of good quality fish fingerlings/juveniles, maintenance of good quality water, good feeding i.e. consistent quality, quantity, place (position) and time of feeding. Fish behavior, regular pond inspection etc must be carried out. All these measures are necessary in the management process so as reduce stress on fish.

Similarly, disease is a simple association between a pathogen and host fish. It is a condition that impairs normal physiological functions (movement, reproduction, growth, development etc. Mitigating circumstances such as poor water quality, over crowding, poor quality and quantity feed etc are usually present before fish becomes sick. Also, Fish disease outbreaks increase production costs because of the investment lost on dead fish, the cost of treatment, and decreased growth during convalescence. Once fish get sick, salvage is difficult. Successful fish health management will prevent occurrence of fish diseases. Without this foundation, outbreaks of diseases will be difficult to prevent. Disease can be grouped into two namely infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms present in the environment (water). Finally, they are broadly categorized as parasites, bacteria, fungal, viral diseases.

EXAMPLES OF FISH DISEASES (INFECTIOUS)

Causative
Agent

Common Name

Species Affected

Possible

Symptoms

Treatment

Period

Myxococcus

Piscicalla

White
head and Mouth disease

Clarias sp fry and
fingerlings

Diseased fish lose their
normal colour and turn milky white from the snout to the eye ball.

Lime – wash pond with
Quicklime at a rate of 150kg/ha.

Pseudomonas Permoalba

Clarias
sp from its eggs to table size fish.

Swollen fish infected with Trichodiniosis
and Glochidosis may also show symptoms of white head and mouth colour.

§ Immerse
fish in s solution of

Aueromycin or keproceryl or terramycin as follows:

1.0g/litre of water for 5 – 7 days.

§ To
1kg of feed add 100gms of Keproceryl or aueromycin.

§ Immerse
fish into a

solution
of aureomycin and terramycin at a dose of 12.5ppm for 30mins.

Other examples are (a) Flexibacter columnaris (Bacterial Gill rot) IN Clarias gariepinus fingerlings and juveniles. The symptoms are black gill filaments covered with mud and mucus or mucus appear putrid. Treatment is use of table salt (Nacl) at a concentration
of 2 – 2.5% for 10 – 15 minutes in 20 litres of water. (b) Aeromonas punctata (Furunculosis) in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings, juveniles and adults. The symptoms are (a) Dorsal fin and muscle inflamed, later swollen with pus. (b) fins eroded and damaged fish appears hyperemic and inflamed. Lastly, treatment is through (a) General pond cleaning, Lime-wash pond at a rate of 225 – 375kg/ha/lm water depth of quicklime or 150kg/ha.

NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES

These are caused by management procedures/handling limitations which would not necessarily cause disease transfer from one fish to another.

Non-infectious diseases can be broadly categorized as environmental, nutritional or genetic. Environmental diseases are the most important in commercial aquaculture. Environmental diseases includes low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite, or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment. Lastly, these diseases passes from one affected fish to others. Examples are;

OXYGEN STARVATION

Reduced dissolved oxygen levels cause oxygen starvation.

Signs: Affected fish gather at the water inflow or outlet. Also fish will be observed gasping at the water surface. Also, Oxygen starvation may be noted as sudden mortality.

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

Producers must monitor dissolved oxygen levels. Aeration through the use of aerator, pumping in fresh water after flushing out the old water.

ALKALOSIS

Water that becomes too basic (alkaline( for the fish causes alkalosis. Similarly, the PH increases to a level higher than the species can tolerate.

Signs: When the PH is high for an extended period fish die. Alkalosis can cause corroding of the skin and gills or a milky turbidity of the skin.

Prevention and Treatment: PH of the water must be monitored and optimal ranges maintained. Addition of alum
or agricultural gypsum.

BROWN BLOOD DISEASE

This is caused by high nitrite in the water. This combines with haemoglobin in the blood, oxidizes to
methylhaemoglobin.

Signs: Signs of brown blood disease include loss of appetite, topping and literally brown blood. Finally, Fish may die suddenly.

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

Prevented by monitoring the nitrite levels in water. Similarly, common salt or sodium chloride, when applied at a rate of 5ppt effectively reverses the effects of nitrite.

GAS BUBBLE DISEASE

Intuitively, supersaturated oxygen or nitrogen in water causes Gas Bubble Disease. This situation is found naturally in well and
spring water when air is introduced into water lines or pumps.

Signs: Affected fish show bubbles under the skin and in the gill tissues.

Prevention and Treatment:

Intuitvely, monitor dissolved oxygen levels and maintain optimal ranges. Likewise, Algae growth must be controlled to avoid algae bloom. Apply Mechanical aeration for better result.

 

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SUMMARY OF DISEASE TREATMENT

Over the years, four cardinal rules of fish disease treatments have been

(a)    Firstly, Know your fish

(b)    Secondly, Know your water

(c)    Thirdly, Know your chemical

(d)   Lastly, Know your disease.

   FACTORS INDUCING DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN FISH AND THE WAY OUT

The greatest challenge confronting fish farmers worldwide is the issue of maintaining a high livability (hence very low mortality) of fish from the larvae/fry stage to adult/ tablesized stage in their aquaculture operations. This brings to the forefront, the issue of disease prevention and control. Where there are no strategies in place, the farmer should realize that he/she would have no control over any eventual loss that may be incurred.

Furthermore, the best insurance against losses in aquaculture operation is a combination of good management practices and knowledge of disease prevention from our lab and field experience, disease outbreaks on fish farms are usually multifactorial. Oftentimes stress usually precedes disease outbreaks. Seyle (1950) defined stress as “the sum of all
physiology responses by which an animal tries to maintain or reestablish a normal metabolism in the face of a physical or chemical force”.

These physiological changes that occur are classified into three and are called the general adaptation syndrome and these are:

  • Firstly, An alarm reaction
  • Secondly, a  stage of resistance during which adaptation occurs
  • A stage of exhaustion, if adaptation does not occur because the stress was too severe or long lasting. At this
    stage, there is a very thin line between health and disease condition.
  • Lastly, a disease is an unhealthy condition. It could also be defined as absence of ease (dis-ease) or lack of comfort and sound health. Disease could be of infectious (bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoan and parasitic) or noninfectious (metabolic, nutritional, genetic, etc) origin.

KEY FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE OUTBREAKS

The fish itself: That is problems associated with the fish. These include congenital deformities or genetic disorders like Siamese twins in fry. Overshot or undershot jaws, albinistic ophthalmia (absence of normal skin pigment accompanied by protruding eyes). Obtaining fingerlings/juveniles with vertically or horizontally transmitted infections from a hatchery, is the first step towards incurring losses.

Water: The chemistry, physical properties and microbial quality of water go a long way to determine the level of survival of fish. Core chemical parameters like total ammonia nitrogen, unionized ammonia, pH, nitrite, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, etc. should be checked in water intended for fish farming. Likewise, many have made mistakes of making this aspect the last after investing millions of naira on land and structures. Some have ignorantly concluded that their problems in fish farming were purely spiritual attacks only to discover that water from the source(bore-hole well) was either highly acidic or with high levels of nitrite and ammonia that would stress the fishes.

These problems can be corrected. Very high microbial load in water can stress   fish since these organisms do produce endo/exo-toxins as normal metabolites. Where the immune system of the fish cannot withstand this “microbial pressure”, these microorganisms which are opportunistic then invade the tissues and cause harm to the fish. It is easier for such a phenomenon to occur when level of organic matter is high in cement/concrete tanks. The frequency is less in earthen ponds because of larger water volume and lower stocking density.Likewise, in the midst of outbreaks, immediate water change (after collecting water samples and sick fish for lab test) is the first aid approach.

Feed: Poor nutritional quality, high level of mycotoxins and very high level of bacteria and fungi in cfu/gram of feed are major causes of disease in fish. Deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has been associated with bone problems like lordosis, scoliosis and cracked skull syndrome in fishes. Mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins) can have adverse effect on metabolism in fishes because of their effect on target organs.Also, this would cause growth problems. Test Raw materials for fish feed to know the level of aflatoxin or ochratoxin. This can be done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) so as to either diagnose the problem or advice fish feed producer on level of toxin-binder to use while preparing fish feed.

Furthermore, Feeding fish with poor quality feed will result in increased FCR, hence, a poor growth. In the course of our laboratory investigations, feed samples that were not well dried were found to be reservoirs of pathogens responsible for fish death. Some isolates from feed samples were the same as isolates from tissues of sick fishes (i.e. kidney, liver, heart, etc.). Similarly, in the midst of outbreaks, especially after a change in feed input (e.g. fish meal) it is advisable to first of all withdraw the feed, until it is tested and certified safe…

 

Poor Management Practices:

Furthermore, these are caused by man and they include: Poor fish tank hygiene. Rough handling of fishes during sorting.

Use of equipments (e.g. nets) without routine washing and disinfection and rinsing properly with water. Similarly, feeding dead fishes to others (thus transferring disease agents).

Overstocking.

Overfeeding.

Wrong
application of antibiotics and chemicals, resulting in toxicity problems and mortality. Poor feed drying and storage.

Intuitvely, Feeding raw chicken e.g. dead day old chicks and raw intestines to fishes, especially catfishes. This may be a major reason why we have been isolating some common poultry pathogens in sick and dead fishes. (Fresh samples) Lack of quarantine facilities for new fishes, especially where re-circulatory system is used.

Environment:

Beyond water, the word “environment” here refers to the water-holding facilities. Abnormalities or contamination of these water holding facilities will ensure a continous occurrence of disease outbreaks.Likewise, Stocking fingerlings in an un-cured new cement tank is an invitation to early disaster in fish farming. New cements tanks could be cured/aged by soaking the inner portion with water in which bags of manure (cattle or poultry) are kept for 7-14 days. Thoroughly disinfect and rinse tank after curing. Where manure is not used, the cement tanks are filled with water and the presence of active mosquito larvae in the stagnant water after some days is an indicator of the tank’s safety for fish culture. Finally, drained stagnant water and replaced with clean fresh water for fish culture.

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

In fish culture, water quality is usually defined as suitability of water for survival and growth of fishes and it is normally governed by only a few variables .In water quality management, the source, quantity and location of source of water are very important.

It is important to note that this aspect of water quality management in pisciculture is also a function of type of system used i.e., it could be an earthen pond, re-circulatory system or a flow through system. For example the aspect of controlling phytoplankton or algae bloom or checking and regulating turbidity or trying to use organic or inorganic fertilizer to promote growth of phythoplankton is limited to an earthen pond system and have nothing to do with an intensive

WATER PARAMETERS:  

Chemical parameters:

 Amongst these are D.O. (Dissolved Oxygen), pH, Nitrite and Ammonia (ionized and unionized) levels, carbon dioxide, Alkalinity, Total hardness, iron level etc. 

Physical parameters: Examples are temperature and turbidity. 

Biological parameters: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Macrophytes

pH:
This is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of water. The pH scale is
from    1 to 14. A value of 7 is
considered neutral while below 7 is acidic and above it is alkaline. Acceptable
range is between 6.5 and 8.5. Different pH levels have their implications on
fish growth as shown below   

pH                                                                     Effect on Fish
         4                                                                    Acid

 death point         

                 4.5                                                                   No reproduction

  5.0
 -6.5
Slow growth        

 6.5-8.5
Desirable range for fish production

 9 -10
Slow growth

11 and above
Alkaline death point

From experience
with cases received in the laboratory, most cases of hatching failures have
been associated with low pH and softness of water from the source. Calibrated
pH meters could be used in measuring pH of fish pond water. Low pH could be
adjusted, by use of  sodium carbonate.
Very high pH could be adjusted to the normal range, using alluminium sulphate
at 1ppm, to remove 1ppm of alkalinity which is also a reflection of the
pH. 

 

D.Hardness : This is chiefly a measure
of the calcium and magnesium ions in water. A sample of water is considered to
be soft when the measure of hardness is below 50 ppm. Most water samples that
are soft are acidic. while those that are hard are alkaline, i.e. with pH above
7. Fish in soft water (very low Ca2+), tend to lose Na+ and K+ and would have
to spend some energy to re-absorb these ions back into the body, hence poor
weight gain. Calcium carbonate or ground agricultural lime (limestone) could be
used in increasing water hardness. Note that to increase the calcium hardness,
with minimal effect on pH, it is better to use calcium chloride, which also has
rapid and excellent solubility.

Experience has shown that excessive
hardness of water at about 300-400ppm or more will not support hatching
operations, though juveniles of catfish bought from other sources would still
thrive on such farms. At the hatchery level, zeolite (volcanic ash) could be
used as a means of reducing the level of calcium and magnesium ions.

E. Ammonia:
Fish excrete ammonia and less amount of urea into water as waste. Two forms

that occur in water are the unionized ammonia(UIA) and the ionized ammonia.
Both are referred to as total ammonia nitrogen(TAN). Temperature and pH do
affect the proportion of ammonia that is toxic (IUA),and here the lower the
pH,the better. UIA concentration of 0.4 to 3.1 ppm within 96 hours has been
shown to be toxic to catfish, while lower concentrations depress growth rates.
High ammonia destroys fish gill tissues before leading to death. 

hours has been
shown to be toxic to catfish, while lower concentrations depress growth rates.
High ammonia destroys fish gill tissues before leading to death. 

Temperature:
Right from the developmental stage of fish embryo to the adult stage,
temperature plays a major role in regulating metabolic processes in fish which
is poikliothermic. The higher the water temperature, the lower the level of
dissolved oxygen. The lower the water temperature, the lower the rate of feed
consumption and metabolism.  

Turbidity:
This is a measure of the absorption of light passing through water. Light
penetrates only a short distance in highly turbid waters. A secchi disk is used
in measuring turbidity and the measure of transparency is an indicator of the
degree of fertilization in earthen ponds. Phytoplankton (which is vital for oxygen
production by photosynthesis) and zooplankton in earthen ponds have their own
roles in this system and are measured by different means. However in
intensive/super-intensive re-circulatory system these have no place as
formulated fish feed pellets are consumed by fish and aeration units are
available. The biological aspect that is important in the super-intensive
re-circulatory system are the microbes like fungi and bacteria. The levels of
these organisms could build-up dangerously in a closed system if not checked.
This is the reason why U.V.radiation and ozone are used as a means of
controlling these.

 Phytoplankton (which is vital for oxygen
production by photosynthesis) and zooplankton in earthen ponds have their own
roles in this system and are measured by different means. However in
intensive/super-intensive re-circulatory system these have no place as
formulated fish feed pellets are consumed by fish and aeration units are
available. The biological aspect that is important in the super-intensive re-circulatory
system are the microbes like fungi and bacteria. The levels of these organisms
could build-up dangerously in a closed system if not checked. This is the
reason why U.V.radiation and ozone are used as a means of controlling these.

 FARM RECORDS

FISH FARM RECORDS

A record is a register a formal writing of any fact or proceeding, it’s a book of remembrance or any thing entered into the rolls.

WHY ARE RECORDS NEEDED

1.     Firstly, keep track of fish stock in ponds 

2.     Secondly, record growth rate (thus determine quantity of feed applied per time)

3.     To monitor expenditure levels

4.    Likewise, calculate profit at the end of the culture periods

5.     To check activities of human predators

6.     Lastly, make economic appraisal of the entire project.

TYPES OF RECORD

1.     FIrstly, feed consumption record (daily, weekly and monthly)

2.     Store records (feed, medication, fuel)

3.     petty cash imprest book

4.     Latly, staff salaries vouchers

HAVILLA
FARMS LIMITED DAILY FEED
RECORD SPECIE OF FISH…………………………….

POND

NO……………

POND

SIZE………

QUANTITY

STOCKED
………

AVERAGE

WEIGHT……………

DAY

QUANTITY

MORTALITY

REMARKS

OF
FEED(KG)

(MEDICATION,

BEHAVIOUR
ETC.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

EDEN FARMS LIMITED

WEEKLY FEED RECORD

SPECIE OF FISH…………………………….

POND NO………

POND SIZE………

QUANTITY STOCKED ………

AVERAGE

WEIGHT…………

WEEK

QUANTITY

MORTALITY

REMARKS

OF FEED(KG)

(MEDICATION,  ETC.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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