Types Of Ponds For Fish Farming

Types Of Ponds For Fish Farming

Types Of Ponds For Fish Farming is a free guide for farmers. Intuitively, is opens the eyes of startups on fish farming. Fish ponds is an artificial home to culture fish. Furthermore, ponds are of different sizes, sharps and kinds. Starting up Fish farming is a lucrative business. Nevertheless, there are cost implications. Chris Farm Nigeria specializes on several inches of livestock farming, of which “fish farming” is inclusive. Contact us today, lets give you a simple run down for fish farming. Getting a business plans and a feasibility study is a prerequisite for your success. Chris Farm Nigeria writes an irresistible business plans and feasibility study for your business startups or existing one. Similarly, we write for loans, grant, investors, pitch and for your personal use. 

Types Of Ponds For Fish Farming

Several Types Of Ponds For Fish Farming

 

 

 

  • Firstly, Earthen Ponds
  • Secondly, Concrete Ponds
  • Thirdly, Mobile Fish Pond Systems
  • Lastly, Cage And Pen Culture Systems

 

 

 

EARTHEN PONDS

Intuitively, Earthen pond system is the oldest form of fish culture system in Nigeria. The system involves the development of ponds in land. Likewise, close proximity to a water body or along the course of a gentle flowing stream or spring or the excavation. (creation of a cavity or void) of a marked portion of land where water level is close to the ground surface. Stocking density is between 10 and 40 juveniles/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF EARTHEN PONDS

  • Firstly, Cheaper construction costs.
  • Secondly, Lower fish production costs.
  • Thirdly, Does not rely on electricity.
  • Less skilled people are required to manage it.
  • Also, Depends on natural productivity (feed requirement is low).
  • Lastly, Risk of disease outbreak is very low

DISADVANTAGES OF EARTHEN PONDS

  • Firstly, Low stocking density
  • Secondly, Sorting of fish is very difficult thus predisposing the stock to cannibalism, especially when culturing catfish.
  • Thirdly, Low recovery rate unless advanced juveniles are stocked.
  • Also, Fish are more prone to predation/poaching.
  • Low sales price as farm is located in rural areas
  • Finally, Vulnerable to environmental pollution and other hazards.

CONCRETE PONDS

Concrete ponds are made of both vibrated hollow blocks filled with concrete mix or with re-enforced concrete slabs. Similarly, it can be of varying sizes and shapes. This production system is common in urban cities. Particularly where land is not available or suitable for earthen pond construction. In this system; water flows through the pond to refresh it and allowed to run into the drains or suitable soak-away.
  • Firstly, This system is practicable where water is readily available in right quality and quantity.
  • Similarly, it is easier to manage, affordable, productive and sustainable.
  • In this system water is allowed to flow through the pond to refresh it and instead of passing it back to the ponds it is allowed to run into the drains.
  • Lastly, stocking density is between 90 and 100/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Intuitively, easy monitoring
  • Furthermore, Operation is simple
  • Sorting is easy
  • Also, 100 fish per sqm
  • High output/ regular sales
  • Control of predation is possible
  • Finally, Much better farm security

FEATURES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Furthermore,  this system is practicable where water is readily available in right quality and quantity.
  • Similarly, it is easier to manage, affordable, productive and sustainable.
  • In this system water is allowed to flow through the pond to refresh it and instead of passing it back to the ponds it is allowed to run into the drains.
  • Lastly, stocking density is between 90 and 100/sqm

ADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • Firstly, Easy monitoring
  • Operation is simple
  • Similarly, Sorting is easy
  • 100 fish per sqm
  • Likewise, High output/ regular sales
  • Furthermore, Control of predation is possible
  • Lastly, Much better farm security

DISADVANTAGES OF THE FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM

  • High volume of water is required to effectively run this system.
  • Finally, availability of a drainage system or soak away system is compulsory.

INTENSIVE OR RE-CIRCULATORY AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

Re-circulating water systems are designed to minimize or reduce dependence on water exchange and flushing in fish culture units.

These systems have practical applications in commercial Production systems hatcheries, holding tanks, and aquaria systems, as well as small-scale aquaculture projects.

Water is typically re-circulated when there is a specific need to:

1.      Firstly, Minimize water replacement.

2.      Maintain water quality conditions, which differ from the supply water.

3.     Lastly, Compensate for an insufficient water supply. This system helps to achieve the following

  1. Firstly, Aeration.
  2. Secondly, Removal of particulate matter.
  3. Biological filtration to remove ammonia and nitrite.
  4. Lastly, Buffering of pH.

The features of this system are:

  • Firstly, Fish tanks

  • Secondly, Sedimentation tanks

  • Thirdly, Chemical and biological filter tower.

FISH TANKS IN A RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM

ADVANTAGES OF THE RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • Firstly, 350 fish per sqm
  • Likewise, It maximizes land usage.
  • It maximizes water usage.
  • Also, It’s less dependent on constant availability of water.
  • High degrees of management control
  • Products command better pricing as farm is usually locate in  developed areas
  • Lastly, Fishes attain bigger sizes as all the parameters for good growth are optimized

DISADVANTAGES OF THE RE–CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • Intuitively, Capital intensive.
  • Continuous electric power supply is required.
  • System break down may lead to high casualty.
  • Likewise, It’s complex nature requires skilled personnel to manage.
  • Finally, High quality feed required

MOBILE FISH POND SYSTEMS

Farmers interested in fish farming and do not have land, or live in rented apartments can use this system for fish culture. The system is made of wood or Plastics.

Collapsible Mobile Fish Pond For Sale In Nigeria (TARPAULIN MOBILE FISH POND)

Advantages of mobile systems

  • Firstly, It can be dismantled and transferred to another location
  • Secondly, Low construction/installation cost
  • Thirdly, Monitoring is easy.
  • Poaching is reduced as the system is mounted in owners residence
  • Lastly, Lower maintenance cost

Disadvantages of mobile systems

  • Intuitively, Not as durable as the earlier mentioned systems
  • Similarly, Lower returns as few number of fish is stocked
  • Fish stocked close to the owner may end up being consumed by owner or for entertainments.
  • Neighbors could unnecessarily get jealous especially where the owner does not have exclusive use of the space the systems are installed.

CAGE AND PEN CULTURE SYSTEM

This is a relatively new method of fish production, though something close to it is being practised by the artisanal fishermen (a method
called “ACADJA”). Cage and pen systems are located in natural water bodies like streams, rivers and lagoon networks.
PEN – A pen is a shallow water enclosure for the rearing of fish in open water body the pen sits on the floor of the water body.
CAGE – A Cage on the other hand is also a net enclosure similar to pens but usually suspended in a water body anchored on the natural water bed and kept buoyant by floats for the purpose of fish culture.

Advantages of the cage and pen culture systems

  • Firstly, It doe not depend on electricity as cages and pens are water based systems
  • Also, High stocking density
  • Natural live foods are readily available for the cultured fish in addition to artificial feed.

Disadvantages of the cage and pen culture systems

  • Firstly, Fish are more prone to poaching; serious community policing is required.
  • Vulnerable to environmental pollution and other hazards. Conflicts in the use of water ways may arise

POND CONSTRUCTION

The first stage in pond construction is site selection, a relationship exist between the cost of pond construction and the nature of the selected site.

FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SITE SELECTION

Firstly, Suitable Topography

Intuitively, Suitable topography should be generally flat as land with steep topography will require earth cutting which will increase cost of construction.

SUITABLE SOIL PROFILE

Clay soil is suitable for the construction of concrete ponds as soil with loose soil profile will require more reinforcements to stabilize ponds and this also affects the cost of construction.

ADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY

The success of aquaculture projects depends on the supply of water in the right quantity and quality. Geo-physical survey should be conducted to determine the availability of water. Site with low water yield should be avoided. The concrete pond can vary in shape and sizes depending on resources and available land space. However it should not be smaller than 2MX3M and not larger than 8MX4M for ease of management. A dept of between 1.2M and 1.5M is desirable to provide suitable depth and cool water for the fish. Materials required for a concrete fish pond includes cement, granite, sharp sand, iron rods and plumbing materials

CONSTRUCTION OF “FLOW THROUGH” POND SYSTEM

It could be completely or partially buried in the soil or a surface pond depending on the drainage pattern to be employed.

  • Firstly, Dig the foundation according to specification and then the footing.
  • Secondly, Lay one or two couches of block
  • Thirdly, Lay the pipes
  • Fourthly, Do the flooring
  • Set other blocks (about 5 course is ideal) and set iron reds on every 2 course of  block
  •  Also, Fill block holes with concrete, fill two courses at once.
  • Reinforce with iron pillars at a space of 1m apart
  • Likewise, Plaster the pond inside in a double wall pattern (use 1 bag of water proof cement to a bag of cement)
  • Furthermore, Plaster outside
  • About 1.2m is ideal for pond height.
  • Also, Net the pond on top to prevent predation
  • If your location is prone to flood, construct a complete reinforce concrete pond, not the one with blocks.

CONSTRUCTION OF RECIRCULATORY POND SYSTEM

Same as above plus some extra features basically:

1. Sedimentation Chamber – made of net or imported poly fiber or gravel and fine sand

2. Biofilter – May contain plastics, polyfibres, empty crates, larva stones, oyster shell, etc

3. Lastly, Aeration chamber

PREPARATION OF CONCRETE POND FOR STOCKING

1.    Firstly,  Flush the pond after washing

2.     Fill with water

3.     Also, Acidify the pond with dry grass

4.    Likewise,  Leave for 2 weeks

5.     Drain the water, wash the pond and refill with water for another one week

6.    Furthermore,  Drain and fill the third time.

7.     Fertilize using either organic or inorganic fertilizer

8.     Finally, Pond is now ready for use when water turns light green in color

PREPARATION OF OLD EARTHEN POND

1.     Slash the pond embankment

2.     Desilt if need be

3.     Also, Liming depending on the pond pH.

4.     Fertilize using inorganic or organic fertilizer

5.    Finally,  Pond ready for stocking when water turns light green in colour

PREPARATION OF NEW EARTHEN POND

1.     Firstly, Spreading of top soil or organic fertilizer

2.     Secondly, Lime

3.     Thirdly, Fertilize

4.     Pond ready for stocking when water turns light green in colour

MANAGEMENT OF EARTHEN POND

1.     Maintain a clean environment

2.     Also, Fence against predators

3.     Stock juvenile fish to ensure high survival rate

4.    Lastly,  Practice spot feeding For more Catfish info, sales and consultancy, Contact us

MANAGEMENT

  • Intuitively, Management can be reactive or proactive
  • Proactive infers that likely problems are taken care of to fore stall the event happening.
  • Lastly, Reactive style infers that the event actually occurs before remedial action is taken.

FARM MANAGEMENT

1.      System management

2.      Personnel management

3.      Production management

SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

EARTHEN PONDS

1.      Weed the entire pond walls (dyke) to prevent snakes, rodents and other predators from entering the ponds.

2.      After each harvesting, check pond bottom and walls for burrows and signs of erosion

3.      Also, Check monks and sluice gates for wear and tear.

4.      Similarly, De-silt pond bottom after harvesting operations.

5.      Lastly, Apply lime to pond bottom to re-condition it before the next stocking.

CONCRETE FLOW THROUGH AND RE-CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS

  • Check plumbing and fittings for signs of wear and tear or leakages.
  • Likewise, Scrub pond walls to remove excess build up of algae.
  • Back flush sedimentary tanks and bio filter.
  • Furthermore,  Retain water in ponds even after cropping. This will prevent cracking as a result of exposure to harsh sunlight.
  • Also, Check electrical systems, generators and pumps for optimal performance.

 

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MOBILE SYSTEMS

1.     Firstly, Check plastics for signs of abrasion and weakening

2.      Check wood for rot

3.     Lastly, Clean system and disinfect

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