1.0 Introduction A To Z Fish Farming It
1.1 Objectives Of Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme of A To Z Fish Farming IT
- Firstly, It provides an avenue for students in institution of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their approved course of study.
- Secondly, It enlightens and strengthens employers involvement in educational process and to prepare students for future employment.
- Thirdly, inIt provides students the opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation, thereby bridging the gap between theories and practicals.
- Finally, It prepares student for industrial work which they are likely to meet after graduation. It makes one to get to know employers and make a solid network.
1.2 Brief History Of Teemartins Aquaculture On A To Z Fish Farming It
1.3 Business Operating Environment/Overview On A To Z Fish Farming It
- Firstly, Processing bay, smoke-drying plant (150kg/batch/day) and packaging 1,500kg /day.
- Secondly, 20mx5mx1.5m ponds capacity for 25,000 table size fishes.
- Thirdly, Hatchery (producing 10,000fingerlings per production twice/month).
- Likewise, Factory / farm house / staff quarters / meeting room.
- 420ft deep water borehole with 3hp pump.
- Finally, 2 generating sets (10kva petrol and 10kva diesel).
1.4 Figure 1 Teemartins Production Operations Organogram On A To Z Fish Farming It
Nursery fish farming
Grow out fish farming
THE NURSERY FISH FARMING
THE GROW OUT FISH FARMING
STAGES IN CATFISH FARMING
2.1 AQUACULTURE VALUE CHAIN
3.0 PREPARATION OF POND
3.1 PREPARATION OF HATCHERY TANKS
STEPS IN PREPARING HATCHERY TANKS
3.2 BENEFITS/PURPOSE OF HATCHERY.
2. Genetic improvement:-
3. Reduce dependence on wild-caught juvenile:-
3.3 SELECTION OF BROODSTOCKS.
- Firstly, Broodstocks that will be used for breeding must be up to 1kg to 1.5kg for the female while the male should be from 1.5 to 2kg. Also be as from 1 year and above.
- Secondly, Matured eggs showing clearly in the center of the nucleus and could be obtained by
slight pressure on the abdomen.
- Lastlt, the broodstock eggs should be brown in colour but if it is brownish green, it is still alright but brown eggs are the best.
3.4 EQUIPMENT USED IN HATCHERY/HORMONAL INJECTION
- Firstly, Baskets.
- Secondly, Nets and sacks
- Thirdly, A weighing balance
- Sharp razor blade/knife
- Likewise, A bowl
- Saline solution
- Also, Broodstocks (either 1 male to 2 female or depending on the individual)
- Plastic spoon
- Likewise, A syringe
- Tissue paper/hand towel
- Finally, Ovaprim (a synthesized hormone)
3.5 PROCEDURES FOR HATCHERY HORMONE INJECTION IN CATFISH.
Firstly, the broodstocks (females) were taken out from the broodstock pond into a bowl.
Secondly, An empty bowl was kept on top of the weighing balance and was zeroed.
Thirdly, The broodstock were then placed inside the bowl that has been zeroed. This is done in order to measure the weight of the broodstocks to be used for spawning. The reason for weighing the broodstock is to know to the quantity of ovaprim that will be injected in them. Example; for 3.8kg of a female fish, 1.9ml of ovaprim will be injected. (i.e; 0.5x3.8)ml=1.9ml. For 1.8kg of fish, 0.9ml is injected. (i.e; 1.8x0.5)ml=0.9ml.
Then inject the broodstocks with ovaprim hormone at 0.5ml/kg of their body weight or grinded pituitary glands of the mate and leave them for 8-10 hours, this will cause swelling of the abdomen.
Also, Wash the baskets and nets and sacks to be used with saline solution for them to be disinfected. Then place the nets and sacks lightly on each basket, and then place them on the already prepared hatchery tanks. NOTE: Make sure the PH of the water in the hatchery tanks has been tested before pouring the eggs in them. Suitable PH for hatchery is 6.8-9.0.
Likewise, Make a saline solution using 2litres of water and a leveled salt in a teaspoon.
Then bring the male broodstock, cut or make an incision from the position of the papilla (penis), bring out the gonad (testes)(two in number). If the gonad is stained with blood, wash them in a saline solution, then make an incision to extract milt from the gonads to a clean bowl.
Also, then bring the female broodstocks that was injected with ovaprim, remove the water from the bowl and carefully bring out the female without struggle. Dry them gently with hand towel. Hold one of the female broodstock tightly and place in a clean bowl. This is done by two people, a towel or tissue paper is used to cover the head/eyes by one person then the other person strips the female manually by pressing the abdomen with the thumb from the pectoral to genital papilla, this is done to extract the eggs from the female.
Lastly, then mix the eggs from the female with the milt from the gonad of the male and add a little saline water to mix very well with spoon. Then take the mixture to the prepared hatchery tanks, take a little water from the tank and mix with the mixture this will make the temperature of the water to stabilize with the eggs).
3.6. MANAGEMENT OF HATCHERY
NURSING OF EARLY FRY.
NURSING OF POST FRY
STAGES OF FISH DEVELOPMENT.
STOCKING OF POST FRY
STOCKING OF FINGERLINGS
SORTING OF FINGERLINGS
- Firstly, Reduce cannibalism
- Secondly, Select shooter
- Grading them according to their size in concrete tanks
- lastly, Supply homogenous fingerlings to fish farmers
PROCEDURE FOR SORTING FINGERLINGS
- Firstly, the pond water is drained completely by removing the outlet hose.
- Little water is added into the tanks and the fingerlings were being moved out into a bowl.
- Also, Counting them to know the number
- Lastly, They are sorted out into shooters, jumpers or juvenile, etc and either sold or stocked in a concrete pond for enough space.
3.7 FEED, FEEDING RATES
3.8 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR CHANGING WATER IN THE POND/TANK.
- Intuitively, when observed that the water quality is poor.
- Don’t feed the fishes for at least 12 hours to avoid vomiting of feeds by the fishes when draining water.
- Also, Darin the water in the pond and record the duration of draining.
- and record the litres of fuel to use/used in pumping water.
- Lastly, Sort and weigh the fishes when the water drained, sort and weigh sample; measure the average weight and record.
For example: checking the body weight of the fishes.
Size of fishes
No of fishes
Average weight (g)
- Pump water into the pond and record the duration of time used to fill thepond to the regained level.
- Feed the fishes after one hour of pumping water.
- Firstly, Secondly, Check The Water Quality
- If Very Poor, Do Not Feed. If Good, Feed
- Also, Change The Water If Very Poor. Feed The Fishes Contiously
- Until They Stop Feed Intake And Ensure No Feed Is Left Flowing On The Surface Of The Water.
- Lastly, Measure And Record The Amount Of Feed Given And Record Your Observetion.
3.10 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF FISHES
- Sort according to sizes into different basins. NOTE: Do not overload any basin with fishes and ensure there is enough water for them.
- Likewise, Count the distinct sizes and record
- Do this for all distinct sizes
- Also, Sum and record all distinct sizes
- Sum all the measured weight together and divide it by the number of fishes weighed to get the average weight.
- lastly, Weigh all the fishes together. (Don’t stress the fishes).
3.11 TESTING THE PH LEVEL OF WATER
EFFECTS OF PH
- Firstly, Fish eggs will not hatch in acidic water
- Secondly, For the fry, if PH is too high, they will become stressed up.
- Thirdly, For big fishes (table size fishes), the bigger the fishes the more they can adapt to their water.
- Also, PH of high kills smaller fishes (juvenile).
4.0 POST HARVEST PROCESSING OF FISHES AND PACKAGING.
POST HARVEST PROCESSING OF FISHES
4.1 WAYS OF FISH PROCESSING.
4.2 DIFFERENT METHODS/TECHNIQUES OF FISH PROCESSING
We have salting, smoking, drying, curing, dehydration, canning and cooking.
1. SALTING: this is the process whereby the moisture or water content of fish are being lowered or reduced to a point where micro organisms cannot live and grow. Salt improves the texture of a fish because it firms up the fish; salt partially dehydrates the fish and kills the bacteria.
2. SMOKING: this is the combination of salting precooking and drying. Smoking is the final process, this dehydrates the fish further, and the smoke gives colour and flavor to the fish.
3. CURING: this method uses chemical preservatives (including vinegar and salt), smoke and other physical factors to reduce the moisture or water content of the fish.
4. DEHYDRATING: this is an artificial process of drying because it is done with the use of mechanical devices such as an oven, which produce artificial heat for drying.
5. COOKING: is the best way to prevent wastage or spoilage of fish.
6. CANNING: is the packing of fish in air tight containers such as tin cans and glass jars, this prevents air and micro organism from entering. The heat processing, microbes inside the can are destroyed, thus preventing spoilage under normal condition and allowing the fish to be stored for longer period. Sardines and salmon are the most commonly canned fish in the market. But the method that will be laid emphasized on in this report is “drying”. This is used in Teemartins Aquaculture.
This method lowers the water content of the fish to a point where micro organisms, bacteria, enzymes and yeast cannot grow and multiply.
MATERIALS USED FOR DRYING OPERATION ARE;
- Firstly, Smoking kiln
- Secopndly, Weighing scale
- Thirdly, Bowls
- Fourthly, Knife
- Fiftly, Fresh fishes
- Also, Charcoal/firewood
- Table top scaling machine
- Hand gloves Lab coat
- Finally, Transparent nylon
STEPS IN DRYING
first Step: HARVEST THE RAW FISHES :These are the fishes to be processed.
Second Step: KILLING THE FISHES In killing the fishes, one makes sure that water is drained properly before killing them. The fishes are killed with electric shock or by stunning (i.e; hitting the fish on the head) or by deactivating them using salt (this makes them to struggle thereby causing them to be weak).
NOTE: Deactivating the fishes with salt doesn’t mean that the fishes die completely but it will make them to be very weak. Make sure you measure the quantity of salt to be used to avoid the fishes from being salty, and then pour the salt in the bowl containing the fishes and cover make sure that the bowl is water free.
Third Step: GUTTING AND WASHING
Gutting a process whereby the intestines of the fishes are being removed. You can either use a razor blade to gut or a knife. You slice or make an incision in the upper part (i.e close to the head) of the fish and then remove the intestines. After gutting, you wash the fishes with clean water.
NOTE: The intestines are removed to prevent odour emanating from the fish and also reduce the activities of micro organisms. When removing the intestines, also remove the fats because this will disturb the fish from drying well. The eggs maybe removed, or not, depending on one’s choice.
Fourth Step: SEASONING AND SOAKING
This is when the fishes are being soaked in salt solution. After gutting the fishes, wash them well and soak them In a salt solution. The salt gives the fishes a sweet taste.
NOTE: You have to measure the quantity of water to be used for soaking and also measure the quantity of salt. The fish
is soaked for a particular period of time. Another reason for putting the fish in salt solution is to stop bacteria activities. Drying does not change an already spoilt fish; rather it stops them from further spoilage. While seasoning, prepare the fire chamber.
Fifth Step: MAKING FORMS
After soaking the fishes to a required period of time, you arrange your trays for laying the fishes, then start making forms by either folding them or cutting them. Place the fishes on the trays.
Sixth Step: PREPARATION OF HEAT
In making the fire, you have to measure the quantity of charcoal and number of firewoods to be used. when the fire is set, you load the fishes. Maintain the heat but avoid excessive heat so the fishes do not get burnt. Re-heat when you notice the fire is low.
Last Step: HARVEST THE FISHES
Harvest the fishes when they are ready to the customer’s satisfaction.
PACKAGING AND LABELLING
IMPORTANCE OF FISH DRYING.
- Firstly, If it become not possible to consume or sell all fish then drying is a suitable way for preserving.
- Secondly, Preservation is also needed in such place where there is poor or no transportation system.
- Likewise, Fish is very fast rotting being. So, drying is must to keep them freefrom rotting.
- Drying fish has a great demand in the market. It also helps to meet up the fish or protein demand.
- Also, Drying is also being used as nutritious protein food for poultry.
- Dried fish stays for long time.
- Finally, As the drying weights less so, it cost less while transporting.
4.3 DEFINITIONS OF SOME TERMINOLOGIES USED
- Firstly, Larvae: they are those tiny hatched fishes that are not able to feed themselves; they carry a yolk – sac which provides their nutrition.
- Secondly, Fry: this refers to a recently hatched fish that has reached the stage where its yolk – sac has almost disappeared and its swim bladder is operational to the point where the fish can actively feed itself.
- Thirdly, Fingerlings: this refers to a fish that has reached the stage where the fins can be extended and where scales have started developing throughout the body, in this stage, the fish is typically about the size of a finger.
- Also, Juvenile: fry and fingerlings are terms that can be applied to juvenile fish of most species
- Table fish: these are fishes that are being raised to a particular size for consumption.
- Lastly, Broodstock or broodfish: they are group of matured individuals (fishes) used for breeding purposes. Or group of sexually matured individuals of a cultured specie that is kept for breeding. They are maintained in captivity as a source replacement of seed and fry numbers.
5.0 EXTENSION WORK AT NIFFR (NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR FRESH-WATER FISHERIES RESEARCH) IN NIGER STATE.
5.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
- Firstly, to step up the quality of fish processing in Nigeria.
- Secondly, to upgrade the value of fish processing and hygiene.
- Thirdly, to set the standard of fish processing.
5.2 THE TRAINING
- Firstly, We found out that there is no good hygiene during processing and they make use of a local smoking kiln called “BANDA” to smoke–dry the fish which is not insulated.
- Secondly, During processing, a lot of fly perches on the fishes, the fishes are not being washed before putting them on fire for drying.
- Thirdly, During packaging, because hygiene is out of their goal, they package the fishes in cartons using bare hands, dry grasses that may contain some germs and insects, sands, these grasses are used to cover the packaged fishes in the carton. This will therefore make the fishes not to last for a long time.
5.3TEEMARTINS DEMONSTRATION AT ONE OF THE ADOPTED VILLAGES AT NIFFR
The people ninvolved for the demonstration were mostly women (fish processors). Different species of fishes were used. They include; culture catfish (clarias spp), moon fish (citharinus spp/falia), Tilapia, Heterotis, Gymnacus, Tiger fish (Hydrocynus spp), Grass eater (Distichodus spp). They were taught the different steps involved in fish processing/drying which include;
Firstly, Weighing the fishes, counting them and recording.
Secondly, Killing the fishes. They were taught different ways of killing fishes but the method we used was using salt to deactivate them, especially for catfish. Then gut and clean the fishes. After that, the fishes were soaked in saline solution; they were taught how to measure water and salt. Then we made forms by either folding the fishes or cutting them. Then the fishes were placed on trays from the drying kiln.
Thirdly, they prepared the fire chamber using firewood. NIFFER insulated drying kiln was used for drying the fishes. Then the trays were loaded in the drying kiln after the kiln has been heated properly.
Lastly, the women took care of the fishes; they were taught how to check the fishes on interval basis by wearing hand gloves and turning the fishes when they were cool to avoid breaking them. It took 2–3 days to get dried properly. The women were taught how to package the fishes.
MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING INCLUDE;
- Firstly, Table top sealer
- Secondly, Hand gloves
- Thirdly, Facemask
- Finally, Transparent nylon
5.4 INTERACTIVE SECTION
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