Easy Steps In Pig Production / Feasibility Study & Business Plans
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Introduction To Easy Steps In Pig Production / Feasibility Study & Business Plans
Intuitively, pigs are animals of pink, black, or brown skin, with short legs a broad nose and short curly tails. Intuitively, they are basically for meat production called pork. They are heavy feeders and grown rapidly too. Likewise, they eat nearly anything and it contains a great quantity of oil and fat which reduce the number of people that consume the meat.
Pigs has been regarded as an unclean animal, it naturally likeness for dirt and decayed materials for food.
In Africa, due to the poor breed of pigs that are seen every day and more especially, the level of approach to its rearing which is just the ordinary, practical way among the low – income earners. This method leaves a lot to be desired as far as pig breeding and consumption is concerned.
The authorities in food nutrition have proved that pig offers the best potential of satisfying the meat needs of the human population when compared with other livestock kept by man. Africans are not adequately utilizing these potentialities.
1.1. SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION:
(1) Firstly, extensive or scavenging: this system is also known as back yard system where they are allowed to move about freely to feed themselves. This type of system expose the pig to different kind of diseases and parasite also the animals involve are usually dirty, the sight of them makes pork meat deplorable.
(2) Semi – extensive: the animal in the system are confined to the back yard or in a large portion of land well fence with bamboo or mood house to restrict the animal to that area. The animals are feed in the place with feed like forage, left over from human feed, remain from harvest.
(3) Intensive system: this system is by far higher than the other two. This system gives full attention to the animals and it serves as a source of livelihood for the farmer. As a result of this, more effort is made to provide the animals with adequate feeding and housing. It is presume that farmer involve in this system is technically competent and so, the nutritional needs of the animals are met and mere is provision for health care.
(4) Lastly, Integrated system: this system comprises of intensive and a lot more. In integrated system, it is not only adequate attention is given to the animals but also, care is taken from the selected breed to be kept, to the management of the waste which is recycled for other uses like the production of biogas. However, it must be said that this system is capital intensive and that is the reason why not too many farmers are into it.
CLASSIFICATION OF PIGS
(1) Fisrtly, Piglet – newly farrow pigs
(2) Secondly, Weaned – newly separated piglet from their mother
(3) Thirdly, Grower – growing weaners of about 3 months
(4) Girt –selected and separated female pigs for purpose of reproduction
(5) Also, Sow – female pig
(6) Lastly, Boar – male pig
(1) PIGLET: The first day of farrow you clean and disinfect the pen. You cut the abdominal cavity, leaying 1 inch and treat the iodine. In the first three days of their lives you supply artificial source of heat to keep them warm. On the third day of birth, you cut their canine teeth up and down and give them iron injection. 3 – 4 weeks you can castrate and wean after 45 days of their life.
(2) WEANER: You give them vitamin 1 – 3 days of their weaning to encourage them to feed more because they wouldn’t want to feed on their own. Also you can deworm 2 weeks weaning them and feed them for 2 months before classifying them as growers.
(3) GROWERS: They don’t need more medication but at this stage they need quality and quantity feed.
(4) GRITS: They are separated female pigs for the purpose of reproduction. You that prospective sow among the growers, which you can use to boost your stock density.
(5) SOW: They come on heat every 3 – 4 months. After farrowing, they should be given iron injection and enough salt in their feed so as to prevent them from eating up their litter ( piglets)
1.3. CHOOSING THE SITE FOR THE PIGGERY
Before sitting a piggery, there are many factors to be put into consideration. Some of these factors include:
(1) Availability of water: The first and foremost factor to be considered in sitting a piggery is the availability of water. The success of the program depends to a large extent on the constant supply of water which is used for the cleaning of the pens, drinking, cooling of the animals and the administration of drugs. The piggery is therefore to be sited near a river or any other form of constant water supply. Sinking a borehole in the absence of a nearby river may not be out of the question.
(2)Furthermore, distance to residential areas: It is an already known fact that pigs like dirts. Even in an integrated setup, where proper care of waste disposition is ensured, it is still very pertinent to site the piggery in a place relatively removed from where people are living. The reason behind this is not just the sanitation aspect of it but to minimize problems that might be caused to the neighbors such as noise.
(3) Also, waste disposal: Pigs produce a large quantity of bulky faeces over a short period of time. This problem is to recognized at the very beginning of pig production. When this done, proper arrangement on their disposal can also be made from the word go. But if it is not handled at the time,
it might constitute a perennial and nagging problem to the pig enterprise later. This problem does not arise in an integrated system where pig dung is ready raw material for the production of biogas and organic manure.
(4) Accessibility: This is one of the most important things in any profit – oriented enterprise, piggery is not an exception. This site must be constructed in a place that can be very easily accessed. This will make transportation of materials, personnel etc. easy and at the same time, increase the number of people that can come and buy the products or help their transportation to the market.
(5) Lastly, Sun direction: it is advisable that piggeries be constructed following the east – west alignment so that rays of the sun will be as much as possible avoided.
1.4. PIGGERY CONSTRUCTION
In construction a piggery, the farmer should decide on the breed and categories of pigs to be kept. Tin’s will aid in determine the floor and feeding space for each category of pig. Below is a table that can serve as a guide in the construction of a piggery with particular reference to floor and feeding space allocation for the different classes of pigs.
RECOMMENDED FLOOR AND FEEDING SPACE FOR PIGS
9 – 12m.sq
3 – 4m.sq
Gilts and sows
6 – 10m.sq
0.7 – 0.9m.sq
Porkers(40 – 60kg)
Baconers(60 – 90kg)
1.1 – 13m.sq
Piggeries are often constructed in two rows of pen facing each other with a space of 1.5m between them for easy movement of materials and staff. The sidewalls should be between 1 – 1.2m in height while the evens height of the building should not be less than 2.5m. The building itself should be about 3.6m in height. The pens should be double pens with an adjustment entrance. The first part of the pen should be under the roof of the building while the other side should fall outside the roof. The size of the pen is determined by the class of the feed in that pen as shown above the table.
Furthermore, the floor of the pen should be coarsely cemented to prevent slipping and its finishing should be lowered towards the dunging area to permit cleaning with water. Each pen should be fitted with its own feeders, drinkers and wallows. These are constructed with concrete inside the pen. The feeder and drinkers are about six inch deep. Their sizes are determined by the class of pigs to be kept in the particular pen.
FEEDING THE PIGS: The pig is an omnivorous animal. It is therefore, very easy to feed with cereal, grains, vegetables, fish and even fruits. In actual fact, pig follows very closely to boilers in terms of converting feed to flesh. As a result of omnivorous nature, pig does not constitute big problems to their fanner regarding feeding, as is the case with other animals. This reason is one of the things that boost the popular but ineffective scavenging system. In an intensive and integrated system, where the goal is the profitability of the enterprise, the pigs are adequately fed with formulated feeds, which will meet their nutritional and physiological need so that both their growth rate and productivity can be enhanced.
Formulated feeds are in different categories, we have the weaner’s feed, the grower’s feed and breeder feed.
(1) The weaner’s feed: is very rich in protein and energy. Its protein content is up to 18 – 20 % while the energy content is 3000 – 3200 kilo cal/kg. This feed is given to weaners at weaning, when they are about 5 – 10 kg in weight u[ to when they attain 35kg body of weight.
(2) The grower’s feed: The energy content of this feed is 2800kcal/kg, it content also crude protein up to 16 -18 %. This feed is given to the pigs from the time they attain 35kg – 100kg of body weight. The important of this feed in relation to pigs being kept for the market cannot be over emphasized. It is this feed that quicken die fattening of the pigs and make them ready for sale.
(3) The breeders’ feeds: this is a special feed for both sow and boar reproducers. It is composed of regulated protein and energy designed for reproductive efficiency. This means that this feed helps to reduce the excess fats which if not checked, can lead to the loss of the libido and also to a reduce reproductive performance. As a result of this, there is need to check excess weight in the animals, the energy content of this feed is reduced to 1600 – 2800 kcal/kg and its crude protein to 14 – 16%.
1.5. WATER REQUIREMENT IN PIGS.
There are three source of water, available to the pigs.
(1) Metabolic water: this is formed in the body of the animals through the natural metabolism of food breakdown; this means that in the process of breaking down the fats, carbohydrates and proteins taken in by the animal via its food, some amount of water is deposited in the body of the pig.
(2) Water mixed with their feed: as said earlier, it is very advisable to mix water in the feed that is served with pigs. This help in the easy of digestion of feed. At the same time, it adds to the water makeup of the animals.
(3) Water serve in the water troughs: water is very essential to pig production. The amount of water that is supplied into the metabolic system of the animal through the two source enumerated above is not enough to meet the physiological and production needs of the animal. As a result of this water should be constantly supplied into their drinking troughs.
Note: pigs require 2 – 3 liters of water per every kilogramme of feed eaten.
1.6. DISEASES AND PARASITES OF PIGLETS:
(A) Piglet anaemia: this is a very serious and fatal disease, which affect piglets as a result of their being raised on a concrete floor where he doesn’t have access to red soil. The symptoms of this malady include: weakness, rough hair coat and general unthriftness. The disease becomes very noticeable from fifth day of birth to for tenth day. This disease is checked through the injection of iron three days after their birth or by allowing the piglets access to iron rich red soil.
(B) Collibacilosis: this is a bacterial disease of the piglet easily identified through the white and yellow coloration of their faeces. It can be controlled by the injection of antibiotics like oxycline and tetracycline.
(C) Scours: this disease is particular to newly weaned piglets. It is caused by salmonella organisms, but provoked by the stress of weaning. This disease is characterized by diarrhea, followed by weakness and loss weight. However, it can be controlled through the administration of antibiotics.
(D) Mange: this is a parasitic infestation of piglets and older pigs caused by the mange mites. When this happens, there is the formation of crust – like materials on the skin of the animal and it experience itching noticeable by the way it scratches itself on hard surfaces. In severe infestation, there is loss of hair and even death in piglets. This disease is treated with medicines like ivomec, teigal and butox
(E) Intestinal worms: there are various types of intestinal worms that afflict pigs but the major importance are the round worms (Ascarisspp) and tape worm (taeniaspp). Intestinal and other endo – parasites of pigs cause a lot of discomfort to the pigs which lead to reduced growth rate, unthriftness and death, especially of drugs like Ivomec, Finiworm, Levamisode, Piperazine etc.
1.7. DISEASE AND PARASITES OF SOWS
(A) Agalactia: this has to do with the inability of the female animal’s mammary glad to production milk shortly after parturition. This can be treated by the injection of synthetic hormone oxytoxin immediately this problem is detected.
(B) Mastitis: this disease is the inflammation of the mammary glands, which can lead to agalctia. symptoms include hotness of the mammary glands when touched with the animal showing signs of pain when the mammary glands are touched or when the piglets are suckling. There also expression of brown milk from the teat and expression of milk tainted with blood. Giving antibiotic to the sow during or shortly after farrowing prevents this problem.
(C) Metritis: tin’s is inflammation of the uterus and is characterized by the mucous secretion from the vulva 1- 3 days after farrowing, which becomes progressively foul smelling by passage of each day. Prevention is by the administration of antibiotics during or shortly after
N/B: sows and other classes of pigs can also be affected by diarrhea, intestinal worms and mange mites as found in piglets and therefore, the method of treatment is the same.
1.8. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PIGS
(1) Management of piglets: Piglets are young pigs that depend on sow’s milk as their principle source of feeding. Pigs that are from one day to six weeks or eight weeks old depending on the duration weaning period falls within this category. They require extremely carefulness around this period so that they can survive and perform adequately. Areas to be taken care of include:
(A) Cleaning and disinfecting and cutting of their Umbilical cords shortly after farrowing.
(B) Cutting of their canine teeth 1 – 3 days after farrowing.
(C) Supplying them with artificial source of heat during the first three days of their life.
(D) Giving them iron injection three day after parturition: these may however not necessary where pigs rises on un – cemented floor with access to red soil.
(E) Giving them prevention medication against collibacilosis and treating such case whenever they occur.
(F) Casting the males not needed for future reproduction at 3 – 4 weeks of their life.
(2) Management of weaners:
Weaner are piglet newly remove from their mothers. Proper care ought to be given to them to suppress three major ource of stress introduced as a result of weaning. These are includes:
Administration of anti – stress vitamins for the first three days after weaning. Starting them off with little quantity of feed and a gradual increment after they have become adjusted to the feed.
Diluting the feed with energy diluents like brewer’s waste, dried grains and wheat offal if scouring occurs.
Deworming them after two weeks weaning them and repeat this 2 to 3 months afterwards.
Giving medication to control and prevent external parasite like lice and mites 1 – 2 weeks after weaning repeating this 2 – 3 months afterwards.
Feeding them with libitum up to three months weaning.
Management of growers:
These are pigs that have survived the stress OT weaning. Pigs in this class include those that are up to 20 – 90 kg body weight. The principal need of these classes of pigs is maintenance on good feeding plan. When they attain 30kg body weight, male should be separated from the females if this had not be done earlier it may cause precocious and unplanned breeding. At this time, selection is done. Furthermore, those to be groomed for replacing the gilts and sows for future reproduction are kept apart while the rest are channeled towards fattening up for the market. Also, Grower should also be dewormed every 2– 3 months and dipped or sprayed at interval of the same period to prevent or control ectoparasites.
Management of gilts: Gilts are female pigs that are yet to experience farrowing. They are females of grower category that have been selected for future reproduction. The management aspect of gilts therefore is similar to that of growers but for the fact that the farmer must be very conscious of the age and weight at which the gilt is brought for reproduction. Furthermore, gilts are mated when they are about eight months old or when they have attained at least 60kg of body weight. This is done so as to avoid given birth to small litter size and weight.
Management of sows:
A sow is a mother pig, when it is newly weaned off it’s piglets it should be taken to the dry sow’s quarters where good quality of feed is given to it so that it can be conditioned for the next heat period and to increase the number of ova that will be shed. Sows should be kept within the vicinity of the dominant boar where the smell and grunts emanating from boar will provoke the sow to quickly return on heat. Sows should be mated when they start showing standing heat and this usually the second day after commencement of heat. The oestrous cycle in pig is between 18 – 24 days with an average of 21 days, while heating period last for 3 days. Mating should be done early in the morning or late in the evening this is because the heat of the day affects the boar’s sexual drive or libido and subsequently, sperm quantity. The second mating for the sow should be done 12 hours after the first to increase the rate of conception.
Sows show following signs of heat:
a. Swelling and redness of the vulva.
b. Undue excitement or agitation with incessant grunting noise.
c. Riding other sows in the group.
d. Remaining motionless when ridding by other sows.
e. Also, increase in body temperature.
f. Showing a standing reflex when a hand is placed on it’s back.
g. Lastly, loss of appetite.
After mating, the sow should be feed restrictively to prevent from getting too fat. The sow is not to be service if it does not return to heat 21days after mating. The gestation periods last for 115days. Three weeks to farrow the sow must be taken to the farrowing pen so that it can get use to the new environment. The energy content of the feed can at this time be beefed up to encourage milk production and also to fortify the sow against the stress of farrowing. At the time the sow is giving birth, the farmer should be there to assist should complications (farrowing problems) arises. Some of the problems that can come up include cannibalism, prolonged farrowing, obstruction of the birth canal and agalactia. Under normal circumstance farrowing take up to 2 – 6 hours depending on litter size. The end of farrowing is signaled by ejection of after birth placenta. After farrowing sow should be place in high proteinous and energy rich feed. These should be maintaining throughout their lactation period so as to increase rate of milk production.
(6) Management of boars:
Firstly, Boar is a male pig; a good plan for feeding must be put in place for boars used for reproduction. This will enhance their reproductive performance and at the same time prevent it from accumulating excess fats, which will reduce its sexual drive or libido. Male pig becomes sexually active at about third month after its birth. Although young boar can be used for reproduction from their eight months of age, it is advisable that they should be left until eleventh month when the quantity and quality of their semen should have reach the peak. Young and virgin boar must not be brought to a very big sow for mating. If it happens, the sow will is very likely to snob it and it will lead to frustration, bitter sexual experience can result in reduction in sexual drive. A young boar of eight months should not be used for mating twice a week but older ones beyond one year can be should for mating up to seven times a week without any reduction in their reproductive performance. To achieve sexual drive, boars should not be kept away from sow they should keep close to where they can perceive odour and sound of the sows. Mating should carry out by introducing sow to boar.
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