Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions

Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions

Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions. Firstly, the expansion of global aquaculture production is increasing the demand for aquaculture feeds. Fish meal is the main and most critical ingredient in aqua feed production. The increasing cost of fish meal has encouraged feed manufacturers search for cheaper alternative protein sources such as plant proteins. Though the palatability of many plant materials has demerits, anti-nutritional factors are the most serious concern in replacing the fish meal completely in feed formulations.

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Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions

Anti-nutritional factors have an adverse impact on the digestion of feed and its efficiency. There are many kinds of anti-nutritional factors. Three that are associated with the most widely used plant materials are trypsin inhibitor proteins, glucosinolates and phytate. Heat inactivation and water soaking are the two
common detoxification methods used to overcome most of the anti-nutritional factors.

Some Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions

Enzymes provide additional powerful tools that can inactivate anti-nutritional factors and enhance the nutritional value of plant-based protein in feeds. They provide a natural way to transform complex feed components into absorbable nutrients. Endogenous enzymes found in the fishes digestive system help to break down large organic molecules like starch, cellulose and protein into simpler substances. The addition of enzymes in feed can improve nutrient
utilization reducing feed cost and the excretion of nutrients into the environment.

Phytic acid

Phytic acid is one of the most powerful anti-nutritional factors in plant ingredients. The anti-nutritional activity of phytic acid can be eliminated by the addition of relevant enzymes, for example phytase. The phytic acid or phytate found in cereals, legume grains and oil seeds is bound with phosphorus and also with calcium and magnesium, trace elements like iron and zinc, protein and amino acids. Most fishes do not possess their own enzymes to break down the phytate and release the nutrients so they pass through the fish undigested. This is why higher proportions of valuable nutrients from vegetable sources are not utilized by the animals and are wasted as excreta. The feed enzyme phytase not only releases phosphorus from the phytate but also releases minerals and amino acids that are also bound, paving the way for maximum utilization of nutrients.

Advantages of phytase

1. Since the phosphorus bound in phytate becomes available as nutrient due to the addition of phytase, the inclusion of inorganic phosphorus such as fishmeal can be drastically reduced.

2. The environmental performance of aquaculture operations is under scrutiny due to the discharge of nutrients into the surrounding ecosystems. Excessive phosphorus in particular is an important factor in the eutrophication of waterways. Phosporus bound in phytate may be unavailable to the fish but it will still ultimately be released into the environment as microbial action breaks down the fishes waste. The addition of phytase reduces the release of nutrients into the environment by making the bound phosphorus available to the fish for growth – so it is incorporated into the fishes body instead.

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3. Phytase added to the diets improves protein and amino acid digestion in fishes.

4. Phytase can improve the metabolisable energy of feeds by breaking down the phytate-lipid complex.

5. Cheaper plant based protein sources can be substituted for fishmeal lowering feed costs.

Non – starch polysaccharides (NSP)

Another important anti-nutritional factor that can be addressed with feed enzymes is non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This is present in the plant materials and found to reduce the performance of animals. Their anti-nutritive effects are mainly due to the increased viscosity of the digest in the intestine and the enclosure of nutrients making them unavailable to digestion. Since the animals lack the intestinal enzymes for the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides, the supplementation of degrading enzymes in the diet will break down these
anti-nutritive factors and result in better feed utilization. Such an approach has been successfully used in poultry diets.

Experimental results using feed enzymes

A number of studies have reported successful use of enzymes to combat anti-nutritional factors in plant proteins for fish feeds. Phytase added diets has shown to have a higher feed intake. Likewise, growth and better food conversion efficiency than control diets in Channel catfish, as well as reduced phosphorus load in their faecal matter1. Trout fed with phytase-incorporated soybean based diets have been reported to show a 22% improvement over control fish as phosphorus availability increased from 46% to over 70%2. Microbial phytase added diets containing a higher proportion of plant protein have been shown to improve phosphorus and protein digestibility in Atlantic salmon3.

Research On Tilapia Feeding

A feeding trial conducted with tilapia Oreochromisniloticus fingerlings in Brazil showed the significance of phytase in plant protein based diets. The feed was supplemented with commercial phytase enzyme “Natuphas??? at 0, 500, 1500 and 3000 units per kilogram of feed. Fishes fed with 500 units of Natuphas showed higher weight gain and a better food conversion ratio of 1.80. Supplementation of protease-based additive equaled the performance of low protein milk fish diet (24% protein) up to the level of higher protein diets
(28% protein)5.

The addition of commercial enzyme Phytasein soybean based diets free of fish meal showed equal performance of diets containing 10 or 12% fish meal in carp and tilapia4,5,6.

The Future of Feed Enzymes And Anti-Nutritional Factors In Fish Feed Productions

Aquaculture is fast growing Industry. Successful and sustainable aquaculture depends on economically viable and environmental friendly feeds. Similarly, Feed is the major operational cost involving 50 to 60% of the total cost in intensive farming. The major feed ingredient, fishmeal, is expensive and there is increasing competition with other livestock industries for the available supply.

Hence, research work has focused to find alternatives to fishmeal. One alternative is to substitute fishmeal with plant proteins supplemented with feed enzymes. Phytase enzyme is able to release the phosphorus bound in phytate and this permits feed manufacturers to reduce the fishmeal and lower the cost of feed production. Improved phosphorus utilization can also help reduce the discharge of nutrients into the environment. Enzymes can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly aquafeeds.

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Furthermore, the use of enzymes is able to reduce fishmeal inclusion by around 5% in most aquafeeds with potential for more as techniques are refined. This may help to reduce the demand for fishmeal from the aquaculture sector in coming years.


Furthermore, incorporating Proteases in diets helps reduce feed costs without compromising performance. Protein is one of the most expensive components of any livestock diet, but is essential for growth. The challenge, therefore, is to use protein as efficiently as possible so as to reduce feed costs without compromising animal health. Proteases are enzymes that break down protein molecules into the amino acids and peptides needed by animals.

Your benefits

Adding Proteases can:
  • Firstly, Increase protein digestibility
  • Secondly, Improve protein utilization by the animal
  • Allow lower quality protein sources to be included in diets
  • Lastly, Protect the environment by reducing the nitrogen excretion from animal husbandry
Specifically developed for inclusion in animal diets, Proteases significantly increases the digestibility of
It complements naturally occurring proteases in feed, and considerably increases amino acid and peptide supply so as to enhance animal performance. It improves the digestibility of a wide range of protein sources and cereals, allowing savings in diet costs.  

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  • Firstly, how to own a catfish farm
  • How to manage a catfish farm
  • Lastly, how to own, manage, and make millions from catfish farming business (our best seller)

Step By Step On Aquatic Farming Business (Catfish/Tilapia/Prawn/Craps)

  • Title Page
  • Table of Content
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Preface
Chapter One: Introduction
   1.2       Why
is catfish different from other fishes?
  1.3       Fish classification
  •  Habitat
  • Morphology
Chapter Two:
  •  Giant Catfish of the World
  • Scientific classification
Chapter Three:
  • Catfish Family
  • Furthermore, Larval production
  • The culture system
  • Also, Feed and Feeding
  • Hybridization of catfish
  • Culture system modification
  • Finally, Prospect and problems of cultured fish
Chapter Four:
4.0       How to own a Mega fish farm Business
Chapter Five:
  • Pond
  • standard features of a fish pond
  • Types of pond
  • Earthen (Natural) Pond
  • Concrete Pond
  •  Tarpaulin/Plastic/Mobile Pond
  •  Step in fish Pond establishment
  • Important of liming
  • Fertilizing a pond
  • Fish Pond management
Chapter Six:
  • Fish Stocking
  • Stocking of fish can take the form of mono/poly-culture
Chapter Seven:
  • channel catfish
  • Species of channel catfish
  • Life cycle of channel catfish
Chapter Eight:
  • The Electric Catfish
  • Feeding in electric catfish
  • Firing in electric fish
  • Importance tips in managing electric catfish
Chapter Nine:
  • African Giant catfish
  • Habits of African catfish in the wide
  • Natural spawning in the wide
  • Rearing of African giant catfish
Chapter Ten:
  • Spawning
  • Also, Hatching techniques in catfish
  • materials needed for (hatching) spawning
  • Likewise, Prerequisite for (Hatching) spawning in catfish
  •  Steps in (hatching) spawning
  • Some reasons why spawning (Hatching) falls
  • Also, Characteristics of catfish stages
  •  Transportation of catfish
Chapter Eleven:
  • Firstly, Fish Management
  • How to identify oxygen Depletion in ponds
  • Lastly, Questions most people ask about catfish management
See also  How To Own, Manage, And Make Millions From Catfish Production Ebook
Chapter Twelve:
  • Fish parasite and Diseases
  • Fish Disease
  • Causes of Diseases
  • Types of Disease
Chapter Three:
  • Firstly, fish preservation
  • Method of fish preservation
  • Fish salting
  • Drying and Dehydration
  • Also, fish smoking
  • How to smoke fish
Chapter Fourteen:
  • Firstly, How to make millions from catfish production
  •  Secondly, Advertising
  • Thirdly, Marketing
  • Marketing strategy
  • Lastly, How to sustain millions in catfish business
List of figures
Firstly, fig.1.1 Labeled diagram of a typical tilapia fish
Secondly, fig 1.2 labeled diagram of a typical catfish
Thirdly, fig 1.3 Labeled diagram of a typical external anatomy of a tilapia fish
Fig 1.4 Labeled diagram of a typical external anatomy of a carpio cyprisnus
Also, fig 1.5 Labeled diagram of a typical internal anatomy of a tilapia fish
Similarly, fig 1.6 Typical example of catfish
Likewise, fig 8.1 Diagram of electric catfish organs
Likewise, fig 9.1 claries gariepinus sample
Fig 9.2 Heterobranchus Bidorsal Sample
Also, fig 10.1 Diagram on how to inject the catfish
Similarly, fig 10.2 Diagram on how to extract the milt (sperm) from catfish
Lastly, fig 10/3 Diagram on how to strip off eggs from catfish and
to fertilize them
List of tables
Firstly, table 2.1 scientific classification of catfish
Table 3.1 catfish families
Furthermore, table 5.1 table showing water retention in soil
Table 8.1 scientific classification of electric catfish
Also, table 9.1 African Giant catfish
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