Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria

Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria

Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria free guide. Firstly, Fish ponds has several designs and construction pattern. Starting up a fish farming business is a lucrative one. we this free guide, we will try to break everything down for easy understanding.

More to Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria

Furthermore, there is more to Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria. taking it one by one we give us a better guide into fish farming business. Getting a business plans and a feasibility study is a wise step in succeeding in this business. Let’s write you a winning business plans and a feasibility study to get started. Click here to see Details

Fish pond

A fish pond is a pond which is merely meant to keep fish. Firstly, Fishes needs water to survive. To this effect, we ought to build a place for them that can retain water. Furthermore, the introduction of plants to ponds will boost oxygen in water naturally. For earthen or concrete ponds, planting or growing waterlily plants or another plants species is a good one to boost oxygen in water. Artificially, you can use air pump or aerators to supply oxygen in ponds. low oxygen in water causes Fish suffocating.

Laying a fish pond

Fish ponds should be at least 80 cm deep to allow fish to hibernate safely. The water should not be subject to freezing over in winter. To this end, an air pump or a pond heater could help. Likewise, pay attention to the size and quantity of the fish and the pond capacity for optimum growth. When Fishes are over crowed in ponds or artificial habitat, there is drop in growth rate because of stress. To compare when they have enough space.

Polyculture Of Fish

Similarly, combination of different kinds of fish in one pond must be done wisely. Nevertheless, you must have a goal in mind before doing this. Oftentimes, most people Cut down on feed consumption by culturing tilapia fish with catfish. Tilapia fishes Oftentimes are small and reproduce faster than catfish. Catfishes are grow bigger and feeds on the fires of tiliapia fish. The number of fish that can be held in the pond depends on a number of factors. Too many fish in a pond will lead to upsetting the biological equilibrium. Fish will produce more waste material than the pond bacteria are able to process. The consequence will be that the pond will be bothered by floating algae and will become turbid. Besides the chance of diseased fish is bigger.

In a pond which has been equipped with a filter installation and/or a UVC Filter up to 25% more fish can be kept than in a pond without such installation.

Maintenance Fish Pond

As a fish pond is dominated by fish, the pond water will soon be full of waste materials. For this reason a very powerful filter is necessary, which should be inspected and maintained regularly, just like the pump. Also the bottom of the pond should annually be freed from sludge. You can use Bio-Oxydator for this purpose Of course fish need your attention too. They have to be fed supplementary and in case of any disease they have to be administered medicines. If some fish should fall ill, it will have to be separated from the other fish. Certainly if medicines are added to the water.

Get A Fish Pond Beside Your House

Isn’t it great to have an actual fish pond beside your house? To rest by its edge, watching the fish moving in water, feeling the cool breeze, and relaxing, thinking about your future profitable fish business? Surely, it’s a great opportunity! But you need to know everything about artificial fish ponds, their types and construction.

Fish Pond Design And Construction In Nigeria

Artificial Fish Ponds

Artificial fish ponds are a great alternative to natural water reservoirs, in which fish can be bred in a controlled environment. There are two main types of artificial fish ponds: Tarpaulin Mobile ponds, concrete and earth. However, fish can also be bred in plastic, fiberglass or wooden reservoirs.


Prerequisite For Fish Farming Business

There are several crucial things to keep in mind before you even get started. The success of the construction of fish pond will depend on these factors.

  • The location of the nearest marketplace. Breeding fish for sale requires transportation and logistics. Furthermore, If you have a fish market nearby, that’s great, you can start building the pond. If no, maybe, it’s better to consider searching for a better pace. Lastly, If there are no other location options, try to create the most effective transportation plan in advance. The quality of the local ground. This is very important if you are into constructing an earthen pond. You should find a place where clay makes about 20-25% of the soil. Clay prevents the absorption and leaking of the water. It will help your pond stay in place. Besides that, it’s necessary to check whether the soil is polluted by chemicals, which can be dangerous for the fish.

  • The natural resources of the area. It makes sense to construct a fish pond in an area where there’s enough water. Shallow waters tend to become too difficult to use during the dry season. It’s also possible to use already existing natural hollows in order to save on digging. The quality of the available water. It’s better to use natural underground water that’s not polluted by chemicals and different waste. The water from canals or rivers can be polluted by cities or agriculture and dangerous for the fish.

  • Construction of an earthen pond. The process involves digging a hole in the ground, which is about 1m deep at the shallow end and 2m deep where the fish is bred. There are no specific demands for the design of such ponds. You can make them whatever you like providing they meet all the needs of fish. Typically, earthen ponds are round or square but you are free to choose any shape you like. Make sure that you have a stable supply of pure water to the pond. Construction of a concrete pond. Concrete fish pond construction in Nigeria is not much different from the same process anywhere else in the world. You will need several blocks and some cement in order to create thick walls (about 5cm thick) and an even thicker bottom (about 10cm thick). All this means that you will need a slightly bigger hole than for an earthen pond if you want to hold the same amount of water in it. Still, concrete ponds are better in terms of hygiene. Construction of an embankment pond. This is probably the simplest construction that requires only a little effort. All you need to do is create a dam that will cut a part of a natural reservoir of water, creating a pond.

Apart from these types, there’s one more fish pond construction and design option that can save you a lot of money and space. Since having a piece of land is quite expensive, not to mention the process of digging and construction, it may be better and cheaper to purchase a plastic tank and breed fish in it. Such tanks can be of different shapes and sizes, so you can have the right size and price which matches your requirements best of all. Having a fish pond of your own can be a great business. If you are into taking care of fish and then selling it at a local marketplace and earning good money, you should definitely consider having a pond with your own fish. Here’s a video on how to start fish farming and reach success.

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Fish Pond construction


Before constructing the pond, land is surveyed to find out determine its topography.
Marking the area of proposed pond is the first step in the construction of a fish pond.
The natural slope where the main wall is to be built should be ascertained.
The main wall should be marked off at the lower end of the pond, where the slope is the greatest.


The first step while designing fish ponds should be to study the soil type, topography and water supply.

  • Firstly, in designing the fish farm, it should be decided as to where and how many nursery, rearing and stocking ponds are to be constructed.
  • In case of a fish farm constructed solely for the purpose of seed production, only nursery and rearing ponds may be constructed, with a nominal area for the brood stock ponds.
  • In case of grow-out farm, more stocking ponds will be constructed to produce table size fish after stocking fingerlings.

For a composite fish farm all three types of ponds are required and their number should be based on the intended stocking density.

  • Fish ponds should be at least one surface acre in size. Ponds smaller than one acre seldom support a satisfactory fish population over many years. They usually require much more intensive fish management and may not justify the costs.
  • It is important to know the exact size, maximum depth, average depth, and water volume of the pond. This information becomes useful in calculating the amount of herbicide needed for weed control and the number of fish fingerlings needed for stocking.

Different kinds of pond

Freshwater fish ponds differ according to their source of water, the way in which water can be drained from the pond, the material and method used for construction and the method of use for fish farming. Their characteristics are usually defined by the features of the landscape in which they are built. Ponds can be described as follows.
According to the water source

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1. Ponds can be fed by groundwater:

(a) Spring-water ponds are supplied from a spring either in the pond or very close to it. The water supply may vary throughout the year but the quality of the water is usually constant.

(b) Seepage ponds are supplied from the water-table by seepage into the pond. The water level in the pond will vary with the level of the water-table.

2. Rain-fed ponds:

Rain-fed ponds are supplied from rainfall and surface runoff. No water is supplied during the dry season. These ponds are often small depressions in impermeable soil, with a dike built at the lower side to retain more water.

3. Ponds

Ponds can be fed from a water body such as a stream, a lake, a reservoir or an irrigation canal. These may be fed directly (e.g. barrage ponds), by water running straight out from the water body to the ponds, or indirectly (e.g. diversion ponds), by water entering a channel from which controlled amounts can be fed to the ponds.

4. Pump-fed ponds

Pump-fed ponds are normally higher than the water level and can be supplied from a well, spring, lake, reservoir or irrigation canal, by pumping.

According to the means of drainage

  • Undrainable ponds cannot be drained by gravity. They are generally fed by groundwater and/or surface runoff, and their water level may vary seasonally. Such ponds have two main origins.
  • Drainable ponds are set higher than the level to which the water is drained and can easily be drained by gravity*. They are generally fed by surface water such as runoff*, a spring or stream, or are pump-fed.
  • Pump-drained ponds may be drainable by gravity to a certain level, and then the water has to be pumped out. Other ponds, similar to undrainable ponds, must be pumped out completely. These ponds are only used where groundwater does not seep back in to any extent.

According to the construction materials

1. Earthen ponds are entirely constructed from soil materials. They are the most common, and you will learn primarily about these ponds in this manual.

2. Walled ponds are usually surrounded by blocks, brick or concrete walls. Sometimes wooden planking or corrugated metal is used.

3. Lined ponds are earthen ponds lined with an impervious material such as a plastic or rubber sheet.

According to the construction method

1. Dug-out ponds are constructed by excavating soil from an area to form a hole which is then filled with water. They are usually undrainable and fed by rainfall, surface runoff or groundwater.

2. Embankment ponds are formed without excavation by building one or more dikes above ground level to impound water. They are usually drainable and fed by gravity flow of water or by pumping.

3. Cut-and-fill ponds are built by a mix of excavation and embankment on sloping ground. They are usually drainable, and water, which is impounded within the dikes, is fed by gravity or by pumping.

According to the use of the pond

  • Spawning ponds for the production of eggs and small fry;
  • Nursery ponds for the production of larger juveniles;
  • Brood ponds for broodstock rearing;
  • Storage ponds for holding fish temporarily, often prior to marketing;
  • Fattening ponds, for the production of food fish;
  • Integrated ponds which have crops, animals or other fish ponds around them to supply
  • waste materials to the pond as feed or fertilizer;
  • Wintering ponds for holding fish during the cold season.

Three basic pond types

Ponds can be conveniently grouped into three basic types depending on the way the pond fits in with the features of the local landscape.


1. The pond floor is generally below the level of the surrounding land.

2. The pond is directly fed by groundwater, rainfall and/or surface runoff. It can be but is not normally supplemented by pumping.

3. The sunken pond is undrainable or only partially drainable, having been built either as a DUG-OUT POND or to make use of an EXISTING HOLLOW or DEPRESSION in the ground, sometimes with ADDITIONAL EMBANKMENTS to increase depth.


1. They are created in the bottom of a valley by building a DAM across the lower end of the valley. They may be built in a series down the valley.

2. The barrage pond is drainable through the old river bed.

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3. If large floods are present, the excess water is normally diverted around one side of the pond to keep the level in the pond constant. A DIVERSION CANAL is built for this purpose; the pond water supply is then controlled through a structure called the WATER INTAKE.

4. Directly fed from a nearby spring, stream or reservoir, the water enters the pond at a point called the INLET and it flows out at a point called the outlet.

5. To protect the dike from floods, a SPILLWAY should be built.


1. The diversion pond is fed indirectly by gravity or by pumping through a diversion canal (which becomes the MAIN FEEDER CANAL), from a spring, stream, lake or reservoir. The water flow is controlled through a water intake. There is an inlet and an outlet for each pond.

2. The diversion pond can be constructed:

either on sloping ground as a cut-and-fill pond;
or on flat ground as a four-dike embankment pond sometimes called a PADDY POND.

3. It is usually drainable through a drainage canal.


After the designing, it is necessary to prepare detailed estimates of the items of work to be carried out as per the design.
The approximate cost of construction is also to be estimated.

Construction Time

The construction time of the pond is an important factor for pond management.
If the construction of the ponds is completed in summer, the pond can be used for farming immediately for next season (monsoon).

Preparation Of The Site

The site should be cleared before the construction.
All the bushes and small plants, etc. should be cut and removed along with their roots. The roots should be totally removed; otherwise the leakage problem will arise later on.
If there are any trees near the construction site, it is better to cut the branches overhanging the ponds, so that the sunlight is not blocked and the leaves do not fall in the water.
It is better to have trees near the ponds, but only 5m away from the pond.

Mark Out The Ponds

When the pond area is cleaned, it is necessary to mark the outlines of ponds and dykes.
Mark out the main wall or dyke and other walls with stakes. The walls should be wide.
Plan the depth of the pond and height of walls.
The walls should always be at least 30 cm higher than the water level for a small pond, and at least 50 cm higher for a larger pond.

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