Poultry Diseases And Cure During The Raining Or Cold Season
Poultry Diseases And Cure During The Raining Or Cold Season is here for all farmers. Oftentimes, Poultry birds has sever disease outbreak during wet or raining season. This is why we deemed it fit to write this free article. These are little tips to help us understand poultry business better. Similarly, getting a business plan and a feasibility study puts you ahead. Go through our business plans and Feasibility study report CONTENT HERE
More On Poultry Diseases And Cure During The Raining Or Cold Season
Firstly, Poultry birds and poultry production are generally affected by seasonal climatic or weather changes. For instance, in the wet or cold season, chickens eat more feed, drink less water and huddle together to generate heat and keep themselves warm. On the other hand, chickens and other livestock birds consume less feed and drink more water in the hot season or weather in order to cool their body. Don’t be surprised that these changes affect the production of birds. Most especially laying birds. As the egg production is reduced in extremely cold or hot weather. This reduction in egg production occurs because when there are extreme cold or hot conditions, these birds are stressed, and their ability to withstand diseases or immune system is seriously affected.
Other Poultry Diseases And Cure During The Raining Or Cold Season
Some certain poultry diseases are rampant in the wet, rainy or cold seasons. That is, the onset of rain favors the propagation and spread of the causative organisms of these diseases and parasites. Hence, most poultry farmers experience high morbidity and mortality rate during this period. We’re going to discuss some of the poultry diseases that are highly prevalent or rampant in the wet, cold or rainy season.
1. Gumboro Disease or Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD)
Gumboro disease is a virulent disease that affects chicks and young birds of between 3-18 weeks of age. The causative virus attacks the bursal of a bird thereby suppressing or weakening the immune system and predisposing the birds to secondary infections.
Signs of Gumboro diseases or IBD
Firstly, Severe prostration
Secondly, Watery diarrhoea
Fourthly, Inflammation of the cloaca
Also, Soiled vent feathers
Lastly, Treatment, Prevention and Control
Gumboro disease is highly contagious and a flock owner should expect as high as 100% morbidity rate and 20% mortality rate. This disease has no cure or treatment. But one prevent it through vaccination of birds before an outbreak occur. In a situation where the disease has already occurred within a flock, the flock should be culled and the pens should be disinfected. Administer Gumboro Infectious bursal disease vaccine (IBDV) to chickens at their 2nd week and 4th week of age.
2. Fowl Pox
Fowl pox is a highly contagious disease that affects poultry birds at any age. It is caused by pox virus transmitted by mostly mosquitoes and other blood sucking insects. The reason why fowl pox is prevalent during the wet season is that mosquitoes, being the vector, breed well in this season due to the abundance of stagnant water.
Signs of Fowl pox
- The disease affects the skin, respiratory tract and upper alimentary tract, leading to the formation of wounds which later develop to thick scabs.
- Loss of appetite
- Weakness and emaciation of the body
- Difficulty in breathing and swallowing
- Stringy discharge from the nostrils
- Pox lesions on comb, wattles and legs
- Swollen eyelids
- Soiled feathers
Treatment, Prevention and Control
- Fowl pox cannot be treated but the infected birds can be given antibiotics and water. The mash or feed can be mixed with water to make swallowing quite comfortable.
- Vaccinated Healthy birds at 9th week of age to provide them lifetime immunity.
- Isolate or cull infected birds from the flock. Also, Get rid of stagnant water or bush around the farm to control the vectors like mosquitoes.
3. Fowl Cholera
Fowl Cholera is a bacterial disease that affects birds of age 6 week old and above. The bacterium responsible for this is Pasteurella multocida. It is highly contagious and mortality in acute cases is high.
Signs of Fowl Cholera
In acute cases, birds that appear healthy die suddenly while in chronic cases the affected birds show the following:
- Yellow, green or grey diarrhoea
- Loss of appetite
- Laboured breathing
- Drooped wings and tail feathers
- Ruffled feathers
- Swelling of the leg joints, sinuses, wattle and foot pad
- Twisting of the neck (torticolis)
- Discharge from the nostril or beak
Note: The above signs are also similar to those of fowl typhoid.
Treatment, Prevention and Control
Furthermore, sulfa drugs, tetracycline and erythromycin are used in treating Fowl cholera. Poultry birds can vaccinated against Fowl cholera by administering a fowl cholera vaccine. Maintain proper hygiene and sanitation. Practice a high level of biosecurity and prevent rodents, wild birds and other animals.
4. Salmonellosis, Escherichia coli, Pullorum Disease (Bacillary White Diarrhoea)
These bacterial diseases affect birds of all ages. They are endemic in farms or pens with poor sanitation. They affect the digestive system of the infected birds.
Signs of Salmonellosis, Escherichia coli, Pullorum
- Firstly, Severe diarrhoea
- Secondly, Loss of appetite
- Thirdly, Depression and emaciation
- Fourthly, Chicks suffer omphalitis
- White pasty diarrhoea in pullorum disease
- Finally, Huddle together and laboured breathing
Treatment, Prevention and Control
Salmonellosis, E. coli and Pullorum diseases can be treated by administering a broad-spectrum antibiotic to the infected bed and all the flock. High-level farm/pen hygiene and sanitation must be maintained. Biosecurity measures should be in place. Avoid feeding birds with contaminated feeds.
Aspergillosis is the general name given to diseases caused by Aspergillus. Due to the high humidity during the cold season, feeds or litter dampens, thus creating a favourable environment for fungus to grow and thrive. The birds also inhale aspergillus spores and these spores develop into lesions filling the lungs causing respiratory problems or discomforts.
Birds under intensive management systems would experience high disease spread if the stocking density is high and ventilation is inadequate or poor.
How to Manage Poultry Birds Optimally in the Cold or Rainy Season
To manage poultry such as chickens, turkeys, quails, duck and pheasants during cold or rainy periods, poultry farmers have to do the following:
- Add oil or fat to the diet of the birds or reduce the level of nutrients that are not required by the birds to generate heat. This is necessary to avoid wastage and reduce feed production costs, since birds consume more feed to generate heat.
- Install electric bulbs or heater in the pen to serve as a secondary source of heat for the birds. This would help the birds drink enough water and stay warm without getting the reserved energy used up in the process.
- Though very rare in an intensive system but rampant in a free-range system, birds drink from the stagnant water around, thus pick up eggs of parasitic organisms such as intestinal worms. That is why it is important to deworm poultry birds bi-monthly with effective dewormers such as piperazine. A broad-spectrum antibiotic like oxytetracycline should be administered to the birds every month.
- Construct a generous roof overhang over the entrance and sides of pens to prevent rainwater from getting into the pen whenever it rains. Construct a foot dip at the entrances of the pens and a strong disinfectant solution should be in the foot dip always.
- Vaccinate birds at the right time. See the vaccination program for layers and vaccination program for broilers and turkeys
Cage System on Perfect Poultry Business Plan & A Feasibility Study In Nigeria
This system involves rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages, either fitted with stands on floor of house or hanged from the roof. It has been proved very efficient for laying operations, right from day-old to till disposal. At present, 75% of commercial layers in the world are kept in cages. Feeders and water trough are attached to cages from outside except nipple water drinker, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages. Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing system. The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages or on belts or on the floor or deep pit under cages, depending on type of cages.
- Minimum floor space
- More number of eggs per hen can be received
- Less feed wastage
- Better feed efficiency
- Protection from internal parasites and soil borne illnesses
- Sick and unproductive birds can be easily identified and eliminated.
- Clean eggs production
- Vices like egg eating, pecking is minimal.
- Broodiness is minimal
- No need of litter material
- Artificial Insemination (AI) can be adopted.
- High initial investment cost.
- Handling of manure may be problem. Generally, flies become a greater nuisance.
The incidence of blood spots in egg is more
Problem of cage layer fatigue. (It is a condition, in which laying birds in cages develop lameness. It may be due to Ca and P deficiency but the exact reason is not known)
In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is more, especially when the broilers weight is more than 1.5 kg.
Types of cages
Based on the number of birds in a cage, it is classified as
- Firstly, Single or individual bird cage (Only one bird in a cage)
- Secondly, Multiple bird cage (From 2 to 10 birds, usually 3 or 4 birds per cage)
- Lastly, Colony cages (Holding birds more than 11 per cage)
Based on the number of rows
Based on arrangement of cages
1) Stair-step cages
- a) M-type cages
- b) L-type cages
2) Battery cages (Vertical cages)
Based on the type of bird reared
Brooder / chick cages
- Grower cages
- Layer cages
- Breeder cages
Floor space requirements
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More on Poultry Battery Cage Repairers
Poultry Battery Cages get bad when they are expose to adverse weather condition that causes them to rust. Once they becomes rusted, there is need to replace them. If not, your cages may begin to breakdown. Our staff are well trained to handle any task. Contact us right away to help you out.
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