Some Diseases And Vaccination / Routine Treatment In Poultry Business

Some Diseases And Vaccination / Routine Treatment In Poultry Business

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Some Diseases And Vaccination / Routine Treatment In Poultry Busines

Introduction To Some Diseases And Vaccination / Routine Treatment In Poultry Business

Disease is the deviation from normal condition to an abnormal condition brought about by the effect of pathogens or nutritional deficiency. Two factors can be responsible for disease outbreak in poultry.

1.     INTERNAL FACTORS: heredity, age of animal etc.
2.     EXTERNAL FACTORS:
  • Lack of adequate food, water or proper hygiene,
  • Sudden change in climate.
  • Poor management.
  • Microorganisms.
GENERAL SYMPTOMS:
  • Loss of appetite
  • Coldness
  • Weakness/ sleepiness
  • Droopy feather
  • Paleness in appearance
  • Loss of the entire condition and weight
  • If it happens in egg production birds, there is drastic drop in eggs production.

GENERAL PREVENTION

  • Immunization (vaccination of the mother)
  • Vacation (introduction of a mild causative agent, into a healthy animal to build up immunity or to act as antibody).
  • Feeding (giving the correct food / needs to the animal)
  • Adequate hygiene

TYPES OF DISEASES:

Diseases can be classified under two broad headings:
A.    Pathogenic disease
B.     Nutritional disease
A.    Pathogen diseases include: Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites
I.                   External
II.                Internal
Some Diseases And Vaccination / Routine Treatment In Poultry Business

1a. Examples of bacteria diseases are;

  • Pullorum
  • Tuberculosis
  • Yolk sac infection
  • Fowl cholera
  • Lastly, Fowl typhoid

1b. Examples of viral diseases include:

  •  Newcastle
  •  Gumboro
  •  Fowl pox

1c. Examples of fungi diseases

  •        Aspajulosis

1d. Examples of protozoa diseases:

  •       Coccidiosis
  •       Histomonasis
The inhabits the lining of the
intestine so that the begin to pas bloody stool.
1e. Example of the external parasites
  • Fowl pox
  •  Lice
  •  Myths

1f. examples of internal parasites:

  •       Ascaris
  •       Tape worm (taenia solium)

 VACCINATION / ROUTINE TREATMENT

To give vaccination, you must know the ration for the whole birds. For example if they are eating twenty kilograms of feed, they drink twice of what they eat which means that they will be taking forty liters of water.
If they drink forty liters of water per day and vaccine is not supposed to last for more than hours. Multiply this by two the hours the vaccination must exceed. The result is the volume of water in which to put the vaccination. Check for the dose of the vaccine before putting it into their water and if the dose in meant for 1000 birds and your stock is 700 birds. To give the vaccine to our birds we firstly input 10cm of distilled water in our syringe, we now put the syringe into the vaccine, push in the 10cm of distilled water into the vaccine and then shake to dissolve the powered vaccine, and then take 7cm of the dissolved vaccine and put it into their water.

3.13.5 FACTORS CONSIDER IN VACCINATING

  • Firstly, do not vaccinate sick animals.
  • Secondly, preserve the vaccine in refrigerator or in a cool temperature..
  • Do not expose it when you are about using it under the sun (use flask)
  • Likewise, do not use concentrated or treated water.
  • Give at least two to three weeks interval before the next vaccination.
  • Wash and sterilise syringe before usage.
  • Also, do not reuse any open vaccine.
  • Before you vaccinate, keep the birds off water for at least three hours before the time of vaccination.
  • ·Lastly, Burn or bury any unused or left over vaccine

·
Always give security dosage i.e. a little addition.

 
NB: some vaccination is can be injected while others are oral, so give according to the manufacturer’s prescriptions.
On the 1st day you should

 

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  • Newcastle disease vaccine. This is intraocular i.e this vaccine is given in the eye.
  • Mark disease, this is intramuscular.

Cage System on Perfect Poultry Business Plan & A Feasibility Study In Nigeria

This system involves rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages, either fitted with stands on floor of house or hanged from the roof.  It has been proved very efficient for laying operations, right from day-old to till disposal.  At present, 75% of commercial layers in the world are kept in cages. Feeders and water trough are attached to cages from outside except nipple water drinker, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages.  Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing system.  The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages or on belts or on the floor or deep pit under cages, depending on type of cages.

 

Advantages

  • Minimum floor space is needed
  • More number of eggs per hen can be received
  • Less feed wastage
  • Better feed efficiency
  • Protection from internal parasites and soil borne illnesses
  • Sick and unproductive birds can be easily identified and eliminated.
  • Clean eggs production
  • Vices like egg eating, pecking is minimal.
  • Broodiness is minimal
  • No need of litter material
  •  Artificial Insemination (AI) can be adopted.

 

Disadvantages

  • High initial investment cost.
  • Handling of manure may be problem. Generally, flies become a greater nuisance.
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The incidence of blood spots in egg is more

Problem of cage layer fatigue. (It is a condition, in which laying birds in cages develop lameness.  It may be due to Ca and P deficiency but the exact reason is not known)

In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is more, especially when the broilers weight is more than 1.5 kg.

Types of cages

Based on the number of birds in a cage, it is classified as

  • Firstly, Single or individual bird cage (Only one bird in a cage)
  • Secondly, Multiple bird cage (From 2 to 10 birds, usually 3 or 4 birds per cage)
  • Lastly, Colony cages (Holding birds more than 11 per cage)

 

Based on the number of rows

  • Single-deck
  • Double-deck
  • Triple-deck
  • Four-deck
  • Flat-deck

Based on arrangement of cages

1) Stair-step cages

  1. a) M-type cages
  2. b) L-type cages

2) Battery cages (Vertical cages)

Based on the type of bird reared

Brooder / chick cages

  • Grower cages
  • Layer cages
  • Breeder cages

 

Floor space requirements

Type Age
(in weeks)
Deep-litter
(ft2)
Cages
(ft2)
Egg-type chicken 0-8 0.60 0.20
9-18 1.25 0.30
>18 1.50 0.50
Meat-type chicken 0-4 0.30 --
4-8 0.75 --

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